You are here

Text Description for Selected Risk Factors for Smell Impairment

Exposure* Odds Ratio (OR) 95% Confidence Interval (CI)
Epilepsy 4.37 1.71–11.21
Stroke 1.99 1.12–3.53
Nasal congestion or upper respiratory tract infection 1.60 1.28–2.01
Current smoking vs. never 1.93 1.33–2.81
Past smoking vs. never 1.05 0.83–1.33
Sex, male 2.46 1.96–3.08
Age, per 5-year increment 1.82 1.70–1.94

* Each exposure variable or risk factor is adjusted for all other variables in the table.

Back to Selected Risk Factors for Smell Impairment


  • Murphy C, Schubert CR, Cruickshanks KJ, Klein BEK, Klein R, Nondahl DM. Prevalence of olfactory impairment in older adults. JAMA 2002; 288(18): 2307–2312.
Last Updated Date: 
June 7, 2010