Chart created by the NIDCD Epidemiology and Statistics Program.
This figure displays the relative risk (odds ratio estimate) as horizontal rectangular bars for working age adults (20 to 66 years) who have ever had voice problems or disorders by selected conditions: arthritis, thyroid problems, esophageal reflux, stomach or duodenal ulcers, and respiratory allergies; each odds ratio (OR) is relative to people not having the specified condition. 95% confidence intervals (CI) are shown as thin vertical bars stretching above and below the OR for each condition. The ORs of voice disorders were significantly increased for three conditions—thyroid problems, respiratory allergies, and esophageal reflux—as indicated by CIs not overlapping the line where OR = 1 (an OR = 1 is equivalent to no effect, neither increase or decrease in relative risk). The ORs of voice disorders for arthritis and stomach or duodenal ulcers were elevated above 1, but since the CIs intersected or overlapped 1, both these conditions were borderline significant with probability, p, greater than 0.05, but less than 0.10.
- Roy N, Merrill RM, Gray SD, Smith EM. Voice disorders in the general population: prevalence, risk factors, and occupational impact. (abstract) Laryngoscope. 2005 Nov; 115(11): 1988–1995.