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Relative Risk (Odds Ratio Estimate), with 95% Confidence Intervals, for People 20 to 66 Years of Age with Current Medication Use, Ever Having Voice Problems or Disorders
Chart created by the NIDCD Epidemiology and Statistics Program.
This figure displays the relative risk (odds ratio estimate) as horizontal rectangular bars for working age adults (20 to 66 years) who have ever had voice problems or disorders by current medication use: decongestants, anti-depressants, hypertension medication, and steroids or hormones; each odds ratio estimate (OR) is relative to people not using the specified medication. 95% confidence intervals (CI) are shown as thin vertical bars stretching above and below the OR of each condition. Voice disorders were significantly increased only for decongestant use and steroid/hormonal use since the ORs and CIs were above the line OR = 1 (an OR of 1 equals no effect). Voice disorders had an elevated OR with respect to anti-depressants, but the lower end of the confidence interval overlapped slightly with 1; this result is borderline, not quite significant at the 0.05 level. There was no indication of an increased OR of voice disorders with hypertension medication and the CI substantially overlapped 1.
- Roy N, Merrill RM, Gray SD, Smith EM. Voice disorders in the general population: prevalence, risk factors, and occupational impact. (abstract) Laryngoscope. 2005 Nov; 115(11): 1988–1995.