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Updated fact sheets on swallowing and voice disorders now available

December 6, 2010
A couple having dinner

Updated fact sheets on dysphagia, a swallowing disorder, and spasmodic dysphonia and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, two voice disorders, are now available in print and online on the NIDCD website.

Dysphagia can result from cerebral palsy, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, head injury, and other conditions that weaken or damage the muscles and nerves used for swallowing. It happens most frequently in older adults. Read more.

Spasmodic dysphonia is a neurological disorder affecting the voice muscles in the larynx, or voice box. The muscles inside the vocal folds experience sudden involuntary movements—called spasms—which interfere with the ability of the folds to vibrate and produce voice. Read more.

Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a disease in which tumors grow in the air passages leading from the nose and mouth into the lungs. Their presence in the larynx can interfere with the normal vibrations of the vocal folds, causing hoarseness, which is the most common symptom. Read more.

For the full range of NIDCD publications on voice, speech, and language disorders, visit

Last Updated Date: 
December 6, 2010