Skip to main content
Text Size: sML

FY 2012 Congressional Justification

FY 2012 Budget

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

On this page:

Organizational Chart

Organization of the National Institutes of Health: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. Office of the Director: James F. Battey Jr., M.D., Ph.D., Director; Judith Cooper, Ph.D., Deputy Director. Attached to the Office of the Director is the Office of Administration (Chad Wysong, Acting Director). Also attached are three divisions: The Division of Intramural Research (Andrew Griffith, M.D.,Ph.D., Director), the Division of Scientific Programs (Judith Cooper, Ph.D., Director), and the Division of Extramural Activities (Craig Jordan, Ph.D., Director).

Top

Appropriations Language

NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

For carrying out section 301 and title IV of the Public Health Services Act with respect to deafness and other communication disorders $426,043,000.

Top

NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Amounts Available for Obligation 1
(Dollars in Thousands)
Source of Funding FY 2010 Actual FY 2011 CR FY 2012 PB
1. Excludes the following amounts for reimbursable activities carried out by this account:
FY 2010—$1,293
FY 2011—$2,000
FY 2012—$2,000
Appropriation 418,833 418,833 426,043
Type 1 Diabetes 0 0 0
Rescission 0 0 0
Supplemental 0 0 0
Subtotal, adjusted appropriation 418,833 418,833 426,043
Real transfer under Director's one-percent transfer authority (GEI) (676) 0 0
Real transfer under Secretary's one-percent transfer authority (63) 0 0
Comparative transfer to NLM for NCBI and Public Access (185) (356) 0
Comparative transfer under Director's one-percent transfer authority (GEI) 676 0 0
Comparative transfer under Secretary's one-percent transfer authority 0 0 0
Subtotal, adjusted budget authority 418,585 418,477 426,043
Unobligated balance, start of year 0 0 0
Unobligated balance, end of year 0 0 0
Subtotal, adjusted budget authority 418,585 418,477 426,043
Unobligated balance lapsing (93) 0 0
Total obligations 418,492 418,477 426,043

Top

NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Budget Mechanism—Total 1
(Dollars in Thousands)
MECHANISM FY 2010 Actual FY 2011 CR FY 2012 PB Changes vs. FY 2010
Number Amount Number Amount Number Amount Number Amount
1. All items in italics are "non-adds"; items in parenthesis are subtraction.
Research Grants:
Research Projects:
Noncompeting 621 $219,223 651 $226,540 632 $222,138 11 $2,915
Administrative supplements (21) 1,058 (20) 1,000 (20) 1,000 1 (58)
Competing:
Renewal 74 28,971 70 27,940 74 29,825 0 854
New 130 37,336 123 36,003 128 37,897 (2) 561
Supplements 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Subtotal, competing 204 $66,307 193 $63,943 202 $67,722 (2) $1,415
Subtotal, RPGs 825 $286,588 844 $291,483 834 $290,860 9 $4,272
SBIR/STTR 35 $9,967 33 $9,800 34 $10,000 (1) $33
Research Project Grants 860 $296,555 877 $301,283 868 $300,860 8 $4,305
Research Centers:
Specialized/comprehensive 23 $18,525 20 $16,000 20 $16,160 (3) ($2,365)
Clinical research 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Biotechnology 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Comparative medicine 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Research Centers in Minority Institutions 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Research Centers 23 $18,525 20 $16,000 20 $16,160 (3) ($2,365)
Other Research:
Research careers 31 $4,859 35 $5,600 35 $5,656 4 $797
Cancer education 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cooperative clinical research 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Biomedical research support 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Minority biomedical research support 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other 29 2,990 26 1,350 26 1,364 (3) (1,626)
Other Research 60 $7,849 61 $6,950 61 $7,020 1 ($829)
Total Research Grants 943 $322,929 958 $324,233 949 $324,040 6 $1,111
Research Training:
Individual awards 128 FTTPs $4,847 131 FTTPs $5,000 131 FTTPs $5,150 3 $303
Institutional awards 209 FTTPs $9,106 206 FTTPs $9,100 206 FTTPs $9,373 (3) $267
Total Research Training 337 FTTPs $13,953 337 FTTPs $14,100 337 FTTPs $14,523 0 $570
Research & development contracts 57 $23,249 53 $21,344 57 $28,092 0 $4,843
(SBIR/STTR) 0 ($20) 0 ($20) 0 ($20) 0 $0
Intramural research 73 FTEs $38,454 74 FTEs $38,400 74 FTEs $38,784 1 FTEs $330
Research management and support 71 FTEs $20,000 71 FTEs 20,400 71 FTEs 20,604 0 FTEs 604
Construction 0 0 0 0
Buildings and Facilities 0 0 0 0
Total, NIDCD 144 FTEs $418,585 145 FTEs $418,477 145 FTEs $426,043 1 FTEs $7,458

Top

Major Changes in the Fiscal Year 2012 Budget Request

Major changes by budget mechanism and/or budget activity detail are briefly described below. Note that there may be overlap between budget mechanism and activity detail and these highlights will not sum to the total change for the FY 2012 budget request for NIDCD, which is $7.458 million more than the FY 2010 Actual for a total of $426.043 million.

Research Project Grants (+$4.3 million; total $300.9 million). NIDCD will support a total of 868 Research Project Grant (RPG) awards in FY 2012. Noncompeting RPGs will increase by 11 awards and $2.9 million. Competing RPGs will decrease by 2 awards and increase by $1.4 million. The NIH policy for FY 2012 RPG's is a 1% inflationary increase for non-competing grants and a 1% average cost increase for competing grants, versus the FY 2011 CR.

Research Centers (-$2.4 million). Research Centers decrease by 3 awards and $2.4 million.

Other Research (-$0.8 million). Research Careers increase by 4 awards and $0.8 million. Other-Other Research decreases by 3 awards and $1.6 million.

Training (+$0.6 million). A four percent stipend increase for both Individual and Institutional awards is provided, versus the FY 2011 CR, and the number of full-time training positions (FTTP) is maintained at 337.

Research & Development Contracts (+$4.8 million). This increase provides for incremental FY 2012 costs for trans-NIH initiatives such as: Therapeutics for Rare and Neglected Diseases (TRND), plus ongoing NIDCD contracts and inter/intra-agency agreements.

Intramural Research (+$0.3 million; total $38.8 million). Intramural Research will receive an increase of $0.3 million to cover the costs of pay and other increases, including one additional FTE.

Research Management and Support (+$0.6 million; total $20.6 million). RMS will receive an increase of $0.4 million to cover the costs of pay and other increases.

Top

NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Summary of Changes
(Dollars in Thousands)
FY 2010 Actual $418,585
FY 2012 Estimate 426,043
Net change $7,458
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Summary of Changes (continued)
(Dollars in Thousands)
CHANGES 2012 Estimate Change from FY 2010
FTEs Budget Authority FTEs Budget Authority
A. Built-in:
1. Intramural research:
a. Annualization of January 2010 pay increase $12,327 $73
b. January FY 2012 pay increase 12,327 0
c. One less day of pay (n/a for 2011) 12,327 (48)
d. Payment for centrally furnished services 6,008 59
e. Increased cost of laboratory supplies, materials, and other expenses 20,449 201
Subtotal 285
2. Research management and support:
a. Annualization of January 2010 pay increase $10,804 $65
b. January FY 2012 pay increase 10,804 0
c. One less day of pay (n/a for 2011) 10,804 (42)
d. Payment for centrally furnished services 3,165 31
e. Increased cost of laboratory supplies, materials, and other expenses 6,635 64
Subtotal 118
Subtotal, Built-in 403

Top

NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Summary of Changes (continued)
CHANGES 2012 Estimate Change from FY 2010
Number Amount Number Amount
B. Program:
1. Research project grants:
a. Noncompeting 632 $223,138 11 $2,857
b. Competing 202 67,722 (2) 1,415
c. SBIR/STTR 34 10,000 (1) 33
Total 868 $300,860 8 $4,305
2. Research centers 20 $16,160 (3) ($2,365)
3. Other research 61 7,020 1 (829)
4. Research training 337 14,523 0 570
5. Research and development contracts 57 28,092 0 4,843
Subtotal, extramural $366,655 $6,524
6. Intramural research 74 FTEs $38,784 1 FTEs $45
7. Research management and support 71 FTEs 20,604 0 FTEs 486
8. Construction 0 0
9. Buildings and Facilities 0 0
Subtotal, program 145 $426,043 1 $7,055
Total changes 1 FTEs $7,458

Top

Fiscal Year 2012 Budget Graphs

History of Budget Authority and FTEs

Bar chart. See table immediately below for data.
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Funding Levels by Fiscal Year
Fiscal Year Dollars in Millions
2008 396.2
2009 407.1
2010 418.6
2011 418.5
2012 426.0

 

Bar chart. See table immediately below for data.
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Full-Time Employees by Fiscal Year
FY FTEs
2008 138
2009 142
2010 144
2011 145
2012 145

Distribution by Mechanism

Pie chart. See table immediately below for data.
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
FY 2012 Budget Mechanism
Mechanism Percent of Budget
Research Project Grants 70
Research Centers 4
Other Research 2
Research Training 3
R&D Contracts 7
Intramural Research 9
RM&S 5

Change by Selected Mechanism

Bar chart. See table immediately below for data.
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
FY 2012 Estimate Percent Change from FY 2010 Mechanism
Mechanism Percent Change
Research Project Grants 1.5
Research Centers -12.8
Other Research -10.6
Research Training 4.1
R&D Contracts 20.8
Intramural Research 0.9
Res. Mgmt. & Support 3.0
B&F 0.0

Top

NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Budget Authority by Activity
(Dollars in Thousands)
FY 2010 Actual FY 2011 CR FY 2012 PB Change vs. FY 2010
FTEs Amount FTEs Amount FTEs Amount FTEs Amount

Includes FTEs which are reimbursed from the NIH Common Fund for Medical Research.
Includes Real Transfers and Comparable Adjustments as Detailed in the "Amounts Available for Obligation" table.

Extramural Research
Detail:
Hearing & Balance $208,895 $208,632 $212,680 3,785
Smell & Taste 60,656 60,579 61,754 1,098
Voice, Speech, & Language 90,580 90,466 92,221 1,641
Subtotal, Extramural $360,131 $359,677 $366,655 $6,524
Intramural research 73 $38,454 74 $38,400 74 $38,784 1 $330
Res. management & support 71 $20,000 71 $20,400 71 $20,604 0 $604
TOTAL 144 $418,585 145 $418,477 145 $426,043 1 $7,458

Top

NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Authorizing Legislation
PHS Act/Other Citation U.S. Code Citation 2011 Amount Authorized FY 2010 Actual 2012 Amount Authorized FY 2012 PB
Research and Investigation Section 301 42§241 Indefinite Combined$418,585,000 Indefinite Combined $426,043,000
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Section 401(a) 42§281 Indefinite Indefinite
Total, Budget Authority $418,585,000 $426,043,000

Top

NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Appropriations History
Fiscal Year Budget Estimate to Congress House Allowance Senate Allowance Appropriation
2003 $365,929,000 $351,376,000 $372,805,000 $372,805,000
Rescission ($2,423,000)
2004 $380,377,000 $380,377,000 $384,577,000 $384,477,000
Rescission ($2,424,000)
2005 $393,507,000 $393,507,000 $399,000,000 $397,507,000
Rescission ($3,247,000)
2006 $397,432,000 $397,432,000 $418,357,000 $397,432,000
Rescission ($3,974,320)
2007 $391,556,000 $391,556,000 $395,188,000 $393,458,000
Rescission $0
2008 $393,682,000 $400,305,000 $402,680,000 $401,146,000
Rescission ($7,008,000)
Supplemental $2,096,000
2009 $395,047,000 $408,587,000 $406,000,000 $407,259,000
Rescission $0
2010 $413,026,000 $422,308,000 $414,755,000 $418,833,000
Rescission $0
2011 $429,007,000   $428,331,000  
Rescission
2012 $426,043,000

Top

Justification of Budget Request

Authorizing Legislation: Section 301 and title IV of the Public Health Service Act, as amended.

Budget Authority (BA):
FY 2010 Actual FY 2011
Continuing Resolution
FY 2012 Budget Request FY 2012 +/- 2010 Actual
FTE BA FTE BA FTE BA FTE BA
144 $418,585,000 145 $418,477,000 145 $426,043,000 +1 +$7,458,000

Program funds are allocated as follows: Competitive Grants/Cooperative Agreements; Contracts; Direct Federal/Intramural and Other.

Top

Director's Overview

Approximately one in six Americans will experience a communication disorder to some degree in his or her lifetime. For those individuals, the basic components of communication (sensing, interpreting, and responding to people and things in our environment) can be extremely challenging. The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) manages a broad portfolio of both basic and clinical research focused on understanding the normal processes and disorders of human communication. NIDCD advances human communication research and mitigates the associated disorders by conducting and supporting research and research training in three program areas: hearing/balance, smell/taste, and voice/speech/language. These processes are fundamental to the way we perceive and participate in the world around us.

NIDCD Accomplishments. In the past year, NIDCD has supported research activities in the following areas of communication science:

  • Functional Hair Cells from Stem Cells: Hair cells in the inner ear are critical for both hearing and balance. Since mammals normally don't regenerate damaged or lost hair cells, loss of hair cells leads to loss of hearing or balance. NIH-supported scientists developed a method for generating hair cells from both mouse embryonic stem cells and mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Tests suggest that the cells behave like hair cells in response to mechanical stimulation. Scientists hope these mouse studies will enable them to generate similar hair cell-like cells from human stem cells. Understanding the molecular events that enable hair cells to organize and send messages to the brain may enable scientists to translate basic science into treatments to restore lost hearing and balance 1.

     

    1. Oshima K, Shin K, Diensthuber M, Peng AW, Ricci AJ, Heller S. Mechanosensitive hair cell-like cells from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. Cell. 141(4): 704–716, 2010.

  • Stuttering Genes Identified: Stuttering affects three million Americans, but its cause is largely unknown. Scientists have suspected there is a genetic cause to stuttering because it tends to occur in families, but finding the right families to study, and enough of them, is challenging. Scientists have now determined that certain populations worldwide have a higher incidence of stuttering. Using genomic technologies to accelerate discoveries and emphasizing global health, NIDCD intramural scientists studied families from the U.S, the United Kingdom, and Pakistan with inherited stuttering and have identified chromosome 12 as a likely location for a gene involved in stuttering. In 2010, the scientists identified mutations in three genes in individuals who stutter. The genes (GNPTAB, GNPTG, and NAGPA) encode enzymes that help break down and recycle cellular components. Future studies will try to determine how problems with breaking down and recycling worn out parts of the cells interfere with speech production to cause stuttering 2.

     

    2. Kang C, Riazuddin S, Mundorff J, Krasnewich D, Friedman P, Mullikin JC, Drayna D. Mutations in the lysosomal enzyme-targeting pathway and persistent stuttering. N Engl J Med. 362(8): 677–685, 2010.

  • New Brain Stimulation Technique Shows Promise for People with Aphasia: Aphasia, a language disorder in which individuals lose the ability to express or understand language, affects nearly one million Americans. It usually occurs as the result of a traumatic brain event, such as stroke, head injury, or a tumor that damages the language centers of the brain. Recently, NIDCD-supported scientists have identified two novel treatment strategies that can improve outcomes for individuals with chronic aphasia. The first strategy, transcranial direct-current stimulation, builds on knowledge from animal studies that electrically stimulating the brain can enable remodeling and allow new brain regions to take over for damages areas. The second strategy, a behavioral treatment designed to encourage word/object associations, has demonstrated effectiveness in regaining language when the damage occurs in specific brain areas. Both of these strategies will translate basic science into treatment programs that address the specific needs of individuals with aphasia 3.

     

    3. Fridriksson J. Preservation and modulation of specific left hemisphere regions is vital for treated recovery from anomia in stroke. J Neurosci. 30(35): 11558–11564, 2010. Baker JM, Rorden C, Fridriksson J. Using transcranial direct-current stimulation to treat stroke patients with aphasia. Stroke. 41(6): 1229–1236, 2010.

NIDCD Plans, Priorities, and Challenges for the Future. NIDCD plans to continue supporting new and early stage investigators that have innovative ideas and fresh perspectives, and plans to maintain support for new and competing Research Project Grants. Driven by compelling public health needs along with recent scientific progress, NIDCD prioritizes its research investment to identify the most promising opportunities for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, thereby improving the quality of life for people living with a communication disorder. Since communication disorders affect individuals of all ages and ethnicities, NIDCD conducts and supports a broad basic and clinical research portfolio. For example, NIDCD research priorities for the future include:

  • Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL): Approximately 15 percent of Americans between the ages of 20 and 69—or 26 million Americans—have a hearing loss that may have been caused by exposure to loud sounds or noise. NIHL can occur when individuals are exposed to loud noise, yet this disorder is preventable when good hearing health is practiced, such as wearing ear protection in noisy situations. In enhancing the evidence base for health care decisions and translating basic science to better treatments, NIDCD-supported scientists are studying ways to prevent NIHL and developing interventions to reduce NIHL. Since NIHL is one of the major health complaints of U.S. troops returning from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, these research finding will be crucial for the veteran population.
  • Clinical Research and Clinical Trials: NIDCD places high emphasis on translating basic science into new and better treatments by supporting and conducting clinical research and clinical trials on the prevention, pathogenesis, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, management, or epidemiology of diseases or disorders of human communication. NIDCD initiatives are promoting research for translating basic research into clinical interventions for human health and are supporting Clinical Research Centers that enable teams of scientists to focus on a central clinical theme related to communication disorders. NIDCD-supported clinical trials are exploring treatments for sudden deafness, tinnitus, vertigo, and voice disorders.
  • Support of Clinician-Researchers in Communication Sciences: NIDCD helps the U.S. maintain its leadership in biomedical research by supporting a robust research program of the best and brightest scientists studying communication sciences. The Institute has several new and continuing programs to reinvigorate the biomedical research community and train health professionals in fundamental, patient-oriented, and translational research from the early clinical training career stage through the mid-career stage. For example, NIDCD has a program to establish a network of short-term research training programs in the hearing sciences for students in professional doctoral programs leading to the Au.D. degree in audiology. These programs provide the students with hands-on exposure to clinical and translational research. NIDCD also has recently issued an initiative to establish research mentoring networks for budding clinician-scientists focusing on research on human communication, to nurture the research career development of promising clinician-scientists.

Overall Budget Policy: The FY 2012 request for NIDCD is $426.043 million, an increase of $7.458 million or +1.8 percent above the FY 2010 Actual. NIDCD will continue to support new and early stage investigators, and maintain an adequate number of competing Research Project Grants (RPG's), particularly R01's. In FY 2012, NIDCD will support new investigators on R01 equivalent awards at success rates approximately equivalent to those of established investigators submitting new R01 equivalent applications. The budget provides a 1 percent inflationary increase for non-competing RPG's, and a 1 percent average cost increase for competing RPG's. The NIDCD allocates a portion of the funds available for competing RPG's to High Program Priority (HPP) projects outside of the automatic pay line. NIDCD will continue emphasizing faculty, postdoctoral and student training in our three program areas: hearing and balance; smell and taste; and voice, speech & language sciences. Trained investigators will be encouraged to choose a research career through the Pathways to Independence program. In FY 2012, NIH will provide an increase of four percent for stipends levels under the Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award training program, to continue efforts to attain the stipend levels recommended by the National Academy of Sciences. This will build on the two percent increase in stipend levels for FY 2011. Stipend levels were largely flat for several years, and the requested increase will help to sustain the development of a highly qualified biomedical research workforce. Funds are included in R&D Contracts to reflect NIDCD's share of NIH-wide funding required to support several trans-NIH initiatives, such as the Therapies for Rare and Neglected Diseases program (TRND), the Basic Behavioral and Social Sciences Network (OppNet), and support for a new synchrotron at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. For example, each IC that will benefit from the new synchrotron will provide funding to total NIH's commitment to support this new technology—$10 million.

Top

Program Descriptions and Accomplishments

Hearing and Balance Program

Hearing impairment, deafness, and balance disorders can impose a heavy social and economic burden on individuals, their families, and their communities. Approximately 36 million American adults report some degree of hearing loss 4 and almost eight million adults report a chronic problem with balance 5. In addition, approximately two to three out of 1 babies born in the United States each year have a detectable hearing loss 6, which can affect their speech, language, social, and cognitive development. Accordingly, research projects within the NIDCD Hearing and Balance program encompass a significant portion of NIDCD's portfolio. Both hearing and balance disorders are prevalent, decrease quality of life, and cross all ethnic and socioeconomic lines. To study normal and disordered functions of the auditory and vestibular systems, NIDCD utilizes a wide range of research approaches, such as molecular genetics, cellular biology, biomedical imaging, nanotechnology, psychoacoustics, and systems biology, and structural biology. NIDCD has supported research that will help lead to the improvement or prevention of hearing and balance disorders. For example, building on lessons learned from cochlear implant research and technology, NIDCD-supported scientists are developing an implanted device to help partially restore a person's sense of balance. The prototype vestibular implant will be used in a small, 10-person clinical trial of individuals with Meniere's disease that have disabling vertigo (dizziness). The implant has the potential to benefit more than 90 million Americans who experience dizziness or balance problems.

4. Based on NCHS/NHIS data for 2007.

5. Based on prevalences from the 1994–95 Disability Supplement to the NHIS and current US population estimates.

6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Identifying infants with hearing loss - United States, 1999-2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 59(8): 220-223. Gaffney M, Green DR, Gaffney C. Newborn hearing screening and follow-up: are children receiving recommended services? Public Health Rep. 125(2): 199-207, 2010.

Budget Policy: The 2012 budget estimate for the Hearing and Balance program is $212.680 million, an increase of $3.785 million or +1.8 percent from the FY 2010 Actual. In FY 2012, the program will continue emphasizing faculty, postdoctoral and student training on hearing and balance sciences. Trained investigators will be encouraged to choose a research career through the Pathways to Independence program. Making R01 awards to first-time and early-stage investigators in the area of hearing and balances sciences will be given funding priority.

PROGRAM PORTRAIT: Affordable and Accessible Hearing Health Care

FY 2010 Level: $0
FY 2012 Level: $1,250,000
Change: $1,250,000

Hearing loss is a public health issue and is among the leading public health concerns. Approximately 17 percent of American adults, or 36 million people, report some degree of hearing loss. Hearing loss is the third most prevalent chronic health condition facing seniors. Fewer than 20 percent of those with hearing loss who would benefit from intervention and treatment seek help for their condition and untreated hearing loss has social and economic ramifications. Before seeking a hearing aid, most hearing-impaired individuals had lived with hearing loss for more than 10 years and their impairment had progressed to moderate-to-severe levels. For many reasons, the hearing health care needs of the vast majority of adults with hearing loss are not being met. In the FY2010 Senate Labor/HHS/Education Appropriations Subcommittee Report, Congress "recommend(ed) that NIDCD support research to develop, improve, and lower the cost of hearing aids…." Further, Healthy People 2020, a HHS program that provides science-based, 10-year national objectives for promoting health and preventing disease, includes increasing the adoption rate of hearing aid usage as a HP2020 goal. NIDCD is committed to addressing these recommendations and goals through evidence-based and targeted research initiatives. In August 2009, NIDCD convened a workshop on "Accessible and Affordable Hearing Health Care for Adults with Mild to Moderate Hearing Loss." The working group made recommendations where future research activities could have an impact in improving hearing health care for Americans.

Acting on recommendations emerging from the Working Group, NIDCD has launched a series of research initiatives. These initiatives facilitate research collaborations between clinicians and researchers in academic and industry settings, seeking to address the pressing public health need of improving the accessibility, affordability, and outcomes of hearing health care. To date, NIDCD has issued five funding opportunity announcements to encourage research in this area. These initiatives are focusing efforts to develop novel partnerships between researchers; develop better hearing health care service-delivery models; develop measures of success in implementing improved hearing health care; and use science to promote health care reform.

Top

Smell and Taste Program

Each year, more than 200 people visit a physician for chemosensory problems such as smell and taste disorders 7. Many more smell and taste disorders go unreported. The NIDCD Smell and Taste program supports the study of the chemical senses (smell and taste) to enhance our understanding of how individuals communicate with their environment and how chemosensory disorders can be identified and treated. Smell and taste play important roles in preferences and aversions for aromas, specific foods, and flavors. By providing knowledge on food preferences, research on smell and taste may help increase our understanding of obesity and diabetes, and help develop prevention and treatment strategies. Serious health problems like obesity, diabetes, hypertension, malnutrition, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and multiple sclerosis are all accompanied or signaled by chemosensory problems. NIDCD-supported research on molecular and cellular biology, biophysics, and biochemistry of the olfactory and gustatory systems is paving the way for improved diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of chemosensory disorders. For example, NIDCD is participating in a joint NIH/National Science Foundation initiative (Collaborative Research in Computational Neuroscience) that supports research to understand the functions of complex neurobiological systems, including smell and taste. NIDCD has funded two projects studying olfaction (smell) as part of this initiative.

7. http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/statistics/smelltaste/stquickstats.htm.

Budget Policy: The 2012 budget estimate for the Smell and taste program is $61.754 million, an increase of $1.098 million or +1.8 percent from the FY 2010 Actual. In FY 2012, the program will continue emphasizing faculty, postdoctoral and student training on smell and taste sciences. Trained investigators will be encouraged to choose a research career through the Pathways to Independence program. Making R01 awards to first-time and early-stage investigators in the area of smell and taste sciences will be given funding priority.

Voice, Speech, and Language Program

Voice, speech, and language are tools that all individuals use to communicate or share thoughts, ideas, and emotions. However, approximately 7.5 million people in the United States have trouble using their voice 8. By the first grade, roughly five percent of children have noticeable speech disorders 9. Between six and eight million people in the United States have some form of language impairment 10. The NIDCD Voice, Speech, and Language program continues to determine the nature, causes, and prevention of voice, speech, and language disorders. Disorders involving voice, speech, or language, as well as swallowing, can have an overwhelming effect on an individual’s health and quality of life; they affect people of all ages with or without hearing impairment, including children with autism and adults with aphasia or other speech disorders. Therefore, NIDCD continues its commitment to develop effective diagnostic and intervention strategies for people with voice, speech, or language impairments. For example, NIDCD seeks to accelerate basic, translational, and clinical research into therapeutic approaches for spasmodic dysphonia, a voice disorder caused by involuntary movements of one or more muscles involved in the production of voice. Individuals who have spasmodic dysphonia may have occasional difficulty speaking or they may experience sufficient difficulty to interfere with communication. In a funding opportunity announcement, NIDCD is encouraging research collaborations between epidemiologists, neurologists, scientists, speech-language pathologists, and clinicians to foster improved diagnosis and treatment for spasmodic dysphonia.

8. http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/statistics/pages/vsl.aspx.

9. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, Screening for Speech and Language Delay in Preschool Children, http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/uspstf06/speech/speechrev.htm. Shriberg LD, Tomblin JB, McSweeny JL. Prevalence of speech delay in 6-Year-old children and comorbidity with language impairment. J Speech Lang Hear Res 42: 1461–1481, 1999.

10. http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/statistics/pages/vsl.aspx.

Budget Policy: The 2012 budget estimate for the Voice, Speech, and Language program is $92.221 million, an increase of $1.641 million or +1.8 percent from the FY 2010 Actual. In FY 2012, the program will continue emphasizing faculty, postdoctoral and student training on voice, speech, and language sciences. Trained investigators will be encouraged to choose a research career through the Pathways to Independence program. Making R01 awards to first-time and early-stage investigators in the area of voice, speech, and language sciences will be given funding priority.

PROGRAM PORTRAIT: Targeted Research on Non-Verbal School-Aged Children with Autism

FY 2010 Level: $0
FY 2012 Level: $1,500,000
Change: $$1,500,000

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of disorders characterized by impairments in social communication. Recent estimates by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicate that as many as 1 in 110 children are diagnosed with an ASD. This alarming incidence has made research to understand the diverse factors which underlie development of ASD and treatments and services for individuals with ASD a high priority. The variability among individuals with ASD is great, ranging from high-functioning individuals who are able to live and work independently to those with severe disabilities who will require life-long care and supervision. One subset of individuals with ASD which is under-represented in current research is children who remain functionally non-verbal beyond five years of age. In April 2010, NIDCD organized and led a multidisciplinary workshop, cosponsored by several other NIH institutes, to discuss the state of the empirical knowledge and research opportunities regarding this group of children with ASD. Workshop participants discussed research needs and opportunities to identify this population and understand their cognitive abilities and developmental trajectories, assess these children’s abilities in comprehending and integrating verbal and other sensory cues, and develop intervention strategies to improve spoken or other communication abilities for these children.

Based on the research recommendations of this workshop, NIDCD, in concert with National Institute of Mental Health, announced a funding opportunity for scientists to submit revisions to their existing research grants to expand the scope of their research to include characterization and/or treatment studies with non-verbal school-age children with ASD. In addition, a follow-up workshop focused on assessment of this population is anticipated in FY2011. In preparation for the workshop, monthly teleconferences are being held, and preliminary assessment recommendations are being developed.

Intramural Research Program

The NIDCD Intramural Research Program conducts basic and clinical research in human communication, with a primary interest in hearing. Research projects address the genetics of hearing and balance disorders in human and mouse models; identifying molecules and genes important for inner ear development; observing hearing in action by neuroimaging and computer modeling of brain function; and describing how auditory nerve cells communicate. This intense concentration on hearing research and its genetic causes has enabled NIDCD intramural scientists to make significant research progress on this priority for NIDCD. In the past year, NIDCD intramural scientists applied next-generation sequencing technologies to rapidly accelerate the pace of deafness gene discovery. This advance enabled them to identify the gene that is mutated in DFNB79 deafness. NIDCD intramural scientists are also making important discoveries about how our sense of hearing works. They discovered the function of a protein produced by a gene in which mutations cause DFNB28 deafness. Knowledge of how this protein works may help scientists determine a way to restore hearing to individuals who have this form of inherited deafness. NIDCD intramural scientists recently developed a way to measure the physical properties of a membrane (the tectorial membrane) in the inner ear that plays a critical role in detecting sound. This technique will enable scientists to study the functions of biological structures that produce or detect sound. Another NIDCD intramural laboratory determined that symbolic gestures and spoken language are processed by a common neural system. These data suggest that early humans may have developed symbolic language, pairing gestures and meaning, and then used the same system to develop spoken language, pairing vocal sound and meaning 11.

11. Kitajiri S, et al. Actin-bundling protein TRIOBP forms resilient rootlets of hair cell stereocilia essential for hearing. Cell. 141(5): 786-798, 2010. Rehman AU, et al. Targeted capture and next-generation sequencing identifies C9orf75, encoding taperin, as the mutated gene in nonsyndromic deafness DFNB79. Am J Hum Genet. 86(3): 378–388, 2010. Gavara N, Chadwick RS. Noncontact microrheology at acoustic frequencies using frequency-modulated atomic force microscopy. Nat Methods. 7(8): 650–654, 2010. Xu J, Gannon PJ, Emmorey K, Smith JF, Braun AR. Symbolic gestures and spoken language are processed by a common neural system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 106(49): 20664–20669, 2009.

Budget Policy: The 2012 budget estimate for the Intramural Research Program is $38.784 million, an increase of $0.330 million or +0.9 percent from the FY 2010 Actual. The NIDCD Intramural Research Program has been a leader in research on hereditary hearing impairment and has identified many genes whose mutation causes hearing loss. In FY 2012, NIDCD intramural scientists will continue their efforts in identifying mutation in genes which impacts hearing, and identifying or studying additional genes involved in communication disorders in humans and animal models. In accordance with the Scientific Director’s plan, the one additional FTE will be utilized to hire additional staff to enhance NIDCD’s translational and clinical research.

Research Management and Support (RMS) Program

NIDCD RMS activities provide administrative, budgetary, logistical, and scientific support in the review, award, and monitoring of research grants, training awards, and research and development contracts. RMS functions also include strategic planning, coordination, and evaluation of the Institute’s programs, regulatory compliance, international coordination, and liaison with other Federal agencies, Congress, and the public. The Institute currently oversees over 1,300 research grants, training awards, and R&D contracts. To ensure that NIDCD supports and conducts the most promising research, the Institute is in the process of developing a new Strategic Plan. The Plan presents a series of goals and objectives that serve as a guide to NIDCD in prioritizing its research investment, to keep current with the state-of-the-science, and highlight advances in the field of communication disorders. To develop a new Plan, NIDCD will convene a series of working groups and solicit input from scientific experts, the National Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Advisory Council, NIDCD staff, and the public. The new Plan will be published on the NIDCD website in January 2012, and will apply to Fiscal Years 2012–2016.

Budget Policy: The 2012 budget estimate for the RMS program is $20.604 million, an increase of $0.604 million or +3.0 percent from the FY 2010 Actual. NIDCD will continue to manage activities of the NIH Stem Cell Task Force. Additional funds will be utilized for scientific workshops, improved websites, enhanced web-based information systems to improve scientific and administrative management, and strategic planning.

Top

NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Budget Authority by Object
(Dollars in Thousands)
Total compensable workyears FY 2010 Actual FY 2012 PB Increase or Decrease Percent Change
Full-time employment 144 145 1 0.7%
Full-time equivalent of overtime and holiday hours 0 0 0 0.0%
Average ES salary $179,700 $179,700 $0 0.0%
Average GM/GS grade 12.2 12.2 0.0 0.0%
Average GM/GS salary $103,928 $103,928 $0 0.0%
Average salary, grade established by act of July 1, 1944
(42 U.S.C. 207)
$0 $0 $0 0.0%
Average salary of ungraded positions 100,649 100,649 0 0.0%

Top

Budget Authority by Object
(continued)
OBJECT CLASSES FY 2010 Actual FY 2012 Estimate Increase or Decrease Percent Change
Includes FTEs which are reimbursed from the NIH Common Fund for Medical Research
Personnel Compensation:
11.1 Full-time permanent $10,560 $10,630 $70 0.7%
11.3 Other than full-time permanent 5,117 5,183 66 1.3%
11.5 Other personnel compensation 531 536 5 0.9%
11.7 Military personnel 83 87 4 4.8%
11.8 Special personnel services payments 2,108 2,143 35 1.7%
Total, Personnel Compensation $18,399 $18,579 $180 1.0%
12.0 Personnel benefits $4,466 $4,509 $43 1.0%
12.2 Military personnel benefits 43 44 1 2.3%
13.0 Benefits for former personnel 0 0 0 0.0%
Subtotal, Pay Costs $22,908 $23,132 $224 1.0%
21.0 Travel and transportation of persons $514 $547 $33 6.4%
22.0 Transportation of things 50 52 2 4.0%
23.1 Rental payments to GSA 0 0 0 0.0%
23.2 Rental payments to others 8 8 0 0.0%
23.3 Communications, utilities and miscellaneous charges 272 283 11 4.0%
24.0 Printing and reproduction 44 49 5 11.4%
25.1 Consulting services 201 222 21 10.4%
25.2 Other services 2,970 3,080 110 3.7%
25.3 Purchase of goods and services from government accounts 40,173 44,497 4,324 10.8%
25.4 Operation and maintenance of facilities 236 248 12 5.1%
25.5 Research and development contracts 8,184 9,156 972 11.9%
25.6 Medical care 270 271 1 0.4%
25.7 Operation and maintenance of equipment 630 634 4 0.6%
25.8 Subsistence and support of persons 0 0 0 0.0%
25.0 Subtotal, Other Contractual Services $52,664 $58,108 $5,444 10.3%
26.0 Supplies and materials $2,991 $3,013 $22 0.7%
31.0 Equipment 2,252 2,288 36 1.6%
32.0 Land and structures 0 0 0 0.0%
33.0 Investments and loans 0 0 0 0.0%
41.0 Grants, subsidies and contributions 336,882 338,563 1,681 0.5%
42.0 Insurance claims and indemnities 0 0 0 0.0%
43.0 Interest and dividends 0 0 0 0.0%
44.0 Refunds 0 0 0 0.0%
Subtotal, Non-Pay Costs $395,677 $402,911 $7,234 1.8%
Total Budget Authority by Object $418,585 $426,043 $7,458 1.8%

Top

NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Salaries and Expenses
(Dollars in Thousands)
OBJECT CLASSES FY 2010 Actual FY 2012 PB Increase or Decrease Percent Change
Personnel Compensation:
Full-time permanent (11.1) $10,560 $10,630 $70 0.7%
Other than full-time permanent (11.3) 5,117 5,183 66 1.3%
Other personnel compensation (11.5) 531 536 5 0.9%
Military personnel (11.7) 83 87 4 4.8%
Special personnel services payments (11.8) 2,108 2,143 35 1.7%
Total Personnel Compensation (11.9) $18,399 $18,579 $180 1.0%
Civilian personnel benefits (12.1) $4,466 $4,509 $43 1.0%
Military personnel benefits (12.2) 43 44 1 2.3%
Benefits to former personnel (13.0) 0 0 0 0.0%
Subtotal, Pay Costs $22,908 $23,132 $224 1.0%
Travel (21.0) $514 $547 $33 6.4%
Transportation of things (22.0) 50 52 2 4.0%
Rental payments to others (23.2) 8 8 0 0.0%
Communications, utilities and miscellaneous charges (23.3) 272 283 11 4.0%
Printing and reproduction (24.0) 44 49 5 11.4%
Other Contractual Services:
Advisory and assistance services (25.1) 201 222 21 10.4%
Other services (25.2) 2,970 3,080 110 3.7%
Purchases from government accounts (25.3) 25,128 25,585 457 1.8%
Operation and maintenance of facilities (25.4) 236 248 12 5.1%
Operation and maintenance of equipment (25.7) 630 634 4 0.6%
Subsistence and support of persons (25.8) 0 0 0 0.0%
Subtotal Other Contractual Services $29,165 $29,769 $604 2.1%
Supplies and materials (26.0) $2,991 $3,013 $22 0.7%
Subtotal, Non-Pay Costs $33,044 $33,721 $677 2.0%
Total, Administrative Costs $55,952 $56,853 $901 1.6%

Top

NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Details of Full-Time Equivalent Employment (FTEs)
OFFICE/DIVISION FY 2010 Actual FY 2011 CR FY 2012 PB
Civilian Military Total Civilian Military Total Civilian Military Total
Office of the Director 4 0 4 4 0 4 4 0 4
Office of Extramural Activities 15 0 15 15 0 15 15 0 15
Office of Administrative Management 38 0 38 38 0 38 38 0 38
Division of Scientific Programs 14 0 14 14 0 14 14 0 14
Division of Intramural Research Program 73 0 73 74 0 74 74 0 74
Total 144 0 144 145 0 145 145 0 145
Includes FTEs that are reimbursed from the NIH Common Fund for Medical Research
FTEs supported by funds from Cooperative Research and Development Agreements 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Top

Details of Full-Time Equivalent Employment (FTEs)
(continued)
FISCAL YEAR Average GS Grade
2008 12.3
2009 12.2
2010 12.2
2011 12.2
2012 12.2

Top

NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Details of Positions
GRADE FY 2010 Actual FY 2011 CR FY 2012 PB
Total, ES Positions 1 1 1
Total, ES Salary $179,700 $179,700 $179,700
GM/GS-15 23 24 24
GM/GS-14 15 16 16
GM/GS-13 18 19 19
GS-12 20 21 20
GS-11 7 7 7
GS-10 0 0 0
GS-9 9 9 9
GS-8 2 2 2
GS-7 5 5 5
GS-6 2 2 2
GS-5 0 0 0
GS-4 2 2 2
GS-3 0 0 0
GS-2 0 0 0
GS-1 0 0 0
Subtotal 103 107 106
Grades established by Act of July 1, 1944 (42 U.S.C. 207):
Assistant Surgeon General 0 0 0
Director Grade 0 0 0
Senior Grade 1 1 1
Full Grade 0 0 0
Senior Assistant Grade 0 0 0
Assistant Grade 0 0 0
Subtotal 1 1 1
Ungraded 53 55 55
Total permanent positions 101 106 105
Total positions, end of year 158 165 164
Total full-time equivalent (FTE) employment, end of year 144 145 145
Average ES salary 179,700 179,700 179,700
Average GM/GS grade 12.2 12.2 12.2
Average GM/GS salary 103,928 103,928 103,928

Top

NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
New Positions Requested, FY 2012
Grade Number Annual Salary
Staff Clinician AD 601 1 160,938
Total Requested 1 160,938

Top