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Voice, Speech, and Language Charts and Tables

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Lifetime Prevalence of Voice Problems or Disorders for Teachers and Non-Teachers

Self-reported data showing that teachers have a significantly increased risk of lifetime voice problems or disorders compared to non-teachers across each decade of their working life.

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Relative Risk of Ever Having Voice Problems or Disorders for Adults with Selected Conditions

Chart showing the relative risk for adults with arthritis, thyroid problems, esophageal reflux, stomach or duodenal ulcers, or respiratory allergies to have a voice problem or disorder.

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Relative Risk of Ever Having Voice Problems or Disorders for Adults with Current Medication Use

Chart showing the relative risk for adults using decongestants, anti-depressants, hypertension medication, or steroids or hormones to have a voice problem or disorder.

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Prevalence of Stuttering in African American and European American Children in Illinois

Although other reports have found a tendency for higher prevalence of stuttering in African American children, these data show no overall statistically significant differences in prevalence between African American and European American children.

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Prevalence of Speech Problems in U.S. Children by Sex

This figure displays the prevalence of stuttering, stammering, or other speech problem during the past 12 months for children aged 3 to 17 years, based on parent's report that a doctor or other health care professional had identified the condition.

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Mean Language Scores and Non-Verbal I.Q. Scores for 6-Year-Olds

This figure displays language scores and intelligence quotients (I.Q. scores) for four groups of children: normal controls, children with low non-verbal I.Q., children identified with specific language impairment, and children with non-specific language impairment.

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Prevalence of a Reading Disability in Second- and Fourth-Graders

Children identified in kindergarten with specific language impairment (SLI) were much more likely to have reading disability in second grade and fourth grade compared to normal control children; children with non-specific language impairment (NSLI), who also had low non-verbal I.Q. scores, were even more likely to have reading disability.

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Relative Risk of Children Having Specific Language Impairment, by Parent's Level of Education

For each level of education less than college graduate, there is a significant increase in the odds ratio for specific language impairment, which increased more than three-fold for parental education less than high school.

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