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Appendix 10: A Series of Lectures on Human Temporal Bone Histopathology

By Isamu Sando, M.D., D.M.S.

(Each lecture takes approximately one to one and a half hours)

  1. Introduction to Human Temporal Bone Histopathology

    • Advantages/Disadvantages in Comparison to Other Morphological Studies
    • Method to Remove Specimen
    • Process for Histologic Section
    • Orientation to Observe Histologic Section
    • Representative Histology Sections for Anatomy and Pathology
  2. Innervation, Function, and Syndromes Associated with Temporal Bone Structures

    • Cranial Nerves (V to X), Cervical Nerves (2 and 3)
    • Functions (Hearing, Balance, Facial Expression, Tasting, Salivation, Lacrimation, Nasal Secretion, Eye Movement, Sweating, General Sense, etc.)
    • Syndromes/Signs (Frey's Syndrome, Crocodyle-Tearing Syndrome, Gradenigo Syndrome, Hunt's Syndrome, Hitzerberger's Sign, Hennebert's Sign, Tullio's Sign, etc.)
  3. Blood Supply to Temporal Bone and Its Surrounding Structures

    • Vertebral Artery System
    • External Carotid Artery System
    • Internal Carotid Artery System
    • External Ear (Auricle and External Ear Canal)
    • Middle Ear, Mastoid and Eustachian Tube
    • Inner Ear (Cochlea and Vestibular System)
    • Meninge
    • Brain (Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Brain Stem)
    • Sub-Cranial Space
  4. Surgical and Functional Anatomy with Histology Sections and Computer Graphic Reconstruction Images

    • Oval Window and Its Surrounding Structures for Stapedectomy
    • Round Window, Round Window Niche and Its Surrounding Structures for Cochlear Implant Surgery
  5. Three Dimensional Anatomy, Function and Pathology of Eustachian Tube and Its Surrounding Structures by Observation of Histology Sections as Well as Computer Graphic Reconstion Images and Also by Hand Demonstration

    • Hypothesis on Functional Localization
  6. Congenital Anomaly of Inner Ear

    • Congenital Anomaly in General
      • Cause, Frequency of Occurrence, Frequent Site
    • Inner Ear Anomaly
      • Types (Michell, Mondini/Mondini Alexander, Bing-Siebennman, Scheibe, Alexander)
      • Features of Anomaly
      • Frequent Site
      • Dysfunction Associated with Anomaly
      • Clinical Detectability
  7. Congenital Anomaly of Middle and External Ears

    • Congenital Anomaly in General
      • Cause, Frequency of Occurrence, Frequent Site
    • Anomaly of Middle and External Ears
      • Features of Anomaly
      • Frequent Site
      • Dysfunction associated with Anomaly
      • Clinical Detectability
  8. Otitis Media

    • Acute Otitis Media
    • Chronic Otitis Media
    • Complications
  9. Labyrinthitis

    • Bacterial and Viral Labyrinthitis
    • Tympanogenic, Meningogenic, and Hematogenic Labyrinthitis
  10. Otosclerosis and Other Otic Capsule Diseases

    • Otospongiotic and Otosclerotic Stages
    • Cochleo-Otosclerosis
    • Vestibular Otosclerosis
    • Facio-otosclerosis ?
    • Other Otic Capsule Diseases for Differential Diagnosis
  11. Meniere's Disease

    • Source of Endolymph and Perilymph (Theories)
    • Endolymph Flow (Theories)
    • Pathological Findings
    • Distention and Rupture of Labyrinthine Membrane to Induce Hearing Loss and Dizziness (Theories)
    • Surgical Anatomy for Endolymphatic Sac Shunt
    • Surgical Anatomy for Cochleo-Sacculotomy
    • Surgical Anatomy for Streptomycin Injection into Lateral Semicircular Canal
  12. Trauma

    • Temporal Bone Fracture
    • Head Trauma/Concussion
    • Acoustic Trauma and Noise Trauma
    • Ototoxic Trauma
    • Surgical (Iatrogenic) Trauma
    • Trauma due to Physical Agents
  13. Presbycusis

    • Schuknecht Classification for Inner Ear Presbycusis
      • Sensory Type
      • Neural Type
      • Metabolic Type
      • Mechanical Type
      • Combined Type
      • Unknown Cause Type
    • Presbycusis in Central Nervous System
    • Presbycusis in Middle Ear System
  14. Clinical Anatomy and Pathology of Facial Nerve and Facial Canal

    • Facial Nerve
      • Branches Inside and Outside of Temporal Bone
      • Involved Functions (Facial Expression, General Sensation, Taste, Salivation, Lacrimation, Nasal Secretion, etc.)
      • Functional Localization for Detecting Pathological Site
      • Blood Supply
    • Facial Canal
      • Site of Narrowing
      • Site of Partial Bony Defect
  15. Tumor

    • Malignant Tumors
    • Intermediate Tumors
    • Benign Tumors