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FY 2013 Congressional Justification

FY 2013 Budget

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD)

On this page:

 

Organizational Chart

Organization of the National Institutes of Health: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. Office of the Director: James F. Battey Jr., M.D., Ph.D., Director; Judith Cooper, Ph.D., Deputy Director. Attached to the Office of the Director is the Office of Administration Timoth Wheeles, Directory. Also attached are three divisions: The Division of Intramural Research (Andrew Griffith, M.D.,Ph.D., Director), the Division of Scientific Programs (Judith Cooper, Ph.D., Director), and the Division of Extramural Activities (Craig Jordan, Ph.D., Director).

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Appropriations Language

NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

For carrying out section 301 and title IV of the Public Health Services Act with respect to deafness and other communication disorders, [$417,061,000] $417,297,000. (Department of Health and Human Services Appropriations Act, 2012.)

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Amounts Available for Obligation 1
(Dollars in Thousands)
Source of Funding FY 2011 Actual FY 2012 Enacted FY 2013 PB
1. Excludes the following amounts for reimbursable activities carried out by this account: FY 2011 - $1,386 FY 2012 - $2,000 FY 2013 - $2,000
Appropriation 418,833 417,061 417,297
Type 1 Diabetes 0 0 0
Rescission (3,678) (788) 0
Supplemental 0 0 0
Subtotal, adjusted appropriation 415,155 416,273 417,297
Real transfer under Secretary's transfer authority 0 (119) 0
Comparative Transfers for NCATS reorganization 0 0 0
Comparative Transfers to NCATS for Therapeutics and
Rare and Neglected Diseases (TRND)
(341) 0 0
Comparative Transfers to NLM for NCBI and Public Access (356) (376) 0
Subtotal, adjusted budget authority 414,458 415,778 417,297
Unobligated balance, start of year 0 0 0
Unobligated balance, end of year 0 0 0
Subtotal, adjusted budget authority 414,458 415,778 417,297
Unobligated balance lapsing (51) 0 0
Total obligations 414,407 415,778 417,297

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Budget Mechanism—Total 1
(Dollars in Thousands)
MECHANISM FY 2011 Actual FY 2012 Enacted FY 2013 PB Change vs. FY 2012
No. Amount No. Amount No. Amount No. Amount
1. All items in italics are "non-adds"; items in parenthesis are subtractions.
Research Grants:
Research Projects:
Noncompeting 640 $221,421 638 $225,489 623 $221,964 (15) ($3,525)
Administrative Supplements 23 954 33 1,354 23 945 (10) (409)
Competing:
Renewal 56 22,872 51 20,950 53 21,504 2 554
New 144 43,735 133 40,118 138 41,215 5 1,097
Supplements 2 540 0 0 0 0 0 0
Subtotal, Competing 202 $67,147 184 $61,068 191 $62,719 7 $1,651
Subtotal, RPGs 842 $289,522 822 $287,911 814 $285,628 (8) ($2,283)
SBIR/STTR 24 $9,948 25 $10,500 26 $10,800 1 $300
Research Project Grants 866 $299,470 847 $298,411 840 $296,428 (7) ($1,983)
Research Centers:
Specialized/Comprehensive 23 $13,610 24 $14,110 24 $13,969 0 ($141)
Clinical Research 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Biotechnology 0 500 0 500 0 495 0 (5)
Comparative Medicine 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Research Centers in Minority Institutions 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Research Centers 23 $14,110 24 $14,610 24 $14,464 0 ($146)
Other Research:
Research Careers 32 $5,348 32 $5,348 32 $5,295 0 ($53)
Cancer Education 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cooperative Clinical Research 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Biomedical Research Support 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Minority Biomedical Research Support 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other 22 2,601 28 4,100 28 4,059 0 (41)
Other Research 54 $7,949 60 $9,448 60 $9,354 0 ($94)
Total Research Grants 943 $321,529 931 $322,469 924 $320,246 (7) ($2,223)
Research Training: FTTPs FTTPs FTTPs
Individual Awards 127 $4,963 130 $5,163 127 $5,111 (3) ($52)
Institutional Awards 208 $9,160 205 9,160 200 9,068 (5) (92)
Total Research Training 335 $14,123 335 $14,323 327 $14,179 (8) ($144)
Research & Development Contracts 36 $20,831 36 $21,011 35 $22,477 (1) $1,466
(SBIR/STTR) 0 $15 0 $15 0 $15 0 $0
  FTEs   FTEs   FTEs   FTEs  
Intramural Research 74 $38,000 74 $38,000 73 $40,620 (1) $2,620
Research Management and Support 66 19,975 66 19,975 65 19,775 (1) (200)
Construction 0 0 0 0
Buildings and Facilities 0 0 0 0
Total, NIDCD 140 $414,458 140 $415,778 138 $417,297 (2) $1,519

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Major Changes in the Fiscal Year 2013 President's Budget Request

Major changes by budget mechanism and/or budget activity detail are briefly described below. The FY 2013 President's Budget request for NIDCD is $1.519 million more than the FY 2012 level, for a total of $417.297 million.

Research Project Grants (-$1.983 million; total $296.428 million). NIDCD will support a total of 840 Research Project Grant (RPG) awards in FY 2013. Noncompeting RPGs will decrease by 15 awards and $3.525 million. Administrative Supplements will decrease by 10 and $0.409 million. Competing RPGs will increase by 7 awards and $1.651 million. NIH budget policy for RPGs in FY 2013 discontinues inflationary allowances and reduces the average cost of noncompeting and competing RPGs by one percent below the FY 2012 level.

Research Centers (-$0.146 million; total $14.464 million). Research Centers will maintain the same number of awards at 24 and decrease by $0.146 million.

Other Research (-$0.094 million; total $9.354 million). Other Research will maintain the same number of awards at 60 and decrease by $0.094 million.

Training (-$0.144 million; total $14.179 million). A two percent stipend increase for both Individual and Institutional awards is provided. The number of full-time training positions (FTTP) will decrease by 8.

Research & Development Contracts ($+1.466 million; total $22.477 million). Funds are included in R&D contracts to support trans-NIH initiatives, such as the Basic Behavioral and Social Sciences Opportunity Network (OppNet).

Intramural Research (+$2.620 million; total $40.620 million). Intramural Research will receive a $3.000 million increase for costs related to preparing for occupying the new Porter Neuroscience Research Center II facility. This increase will be partially offset by a programmatic reduction of $0.380 million, (1.0 percent) in all other costs, including administrative cost reductions, and a reduction of 1 FTE.

Research Management and Support (-$0.200 million; total $19.775 million). RMS will decrease by 1.0 percent and 1 FTE, including administrative and programmatic cost reductions.

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Summary of Changes
(Dollars in Thousands)
FY 2012 Enacted $415,778
FY 2013 President's Budget $417,297
Net change $1,519
 
CHANGES 2013
President's Budget
Change from FY 2012
FTEs Budget Authority FTEs Budget Authority
A. Built-in:
1. Intramural research:
a. Annualization of January 2012 pay increase & benefits $12,004 $0
b. January FY 2013 pay increase & benefits 12,004 37
c. One more day of pay 12,004 46
d. Annualization of PY net hires 12,004 0
e. Payment for centrally furnished services 5,890 0
f. Increased cost of laboratory supplies, materials, other expenses, and non-recurring costs 22,726 0
Subtotal   $83
2. Research management and support:
a. Annualization of January 2012 pay increase & benefits $10,216 $0
b. January FY 2013 pay increase & benefits 10,216 31
c. One more day of pay 10,216 39
d. Annualization of PY net hires 10,216 0
e. Payment for centrally furnished services 3,457 0
f. Increased cost of laboratory supplies, materials, other expenses, and non-recurring costs 6,102 0
Subtotal $70
Subtotal, Built-in $153

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Summary of Changes (continued)
CHANGES 2013 President's Budget Change from FY 2012
Number Amount Number Amount
B. Program:
1. Research Project Grants:
a. Noncompeting 623 $222,909 (15) ($3,934)
b. Competing 191 62,719 7 1,651
c. SBIR/STTR 26 10,800 1 300
Total 840 $296,428 (7) ($1,983)
2. Research Centers 24 $14,464 0 ($146)
3. Other Research 60 9,354 0 (94)
4. Research Training 327 14,179 (8) (144)
5. Research and development contracts 35 22,477 (1) 1,466
Subtotal, Extramural $356,902 ($901)
6. Intramural Research 73 FTEs $40,620 (1) FTEs $2,537
7. Research Management and Support 65 FTEs 19,775 (1) FTEs (270)
8. Construction 0 0
9. Buildings and Facilities 0 0
Subtotal, program 138 $417,297 (2) $1,366
Total changes   $1,519

 

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History of Budget Authority and FTEs

Bar chart. See table immediately below for data.

 

NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Funding Levels by Fiscal Year
Fiscal Year Dollars in Millions
2009 407.1
2010 418.8
2011 414.5
2012 415.8
2013 417.3

 

Bar chart. See table immediately below for data.

NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Full-Time Employees by Fiscal Year
FY FTEs
2009 142
2010 144
2011 140
2012 140
2013 138

Distribution by Mechanism

Pie chart. See table immediately below for data.

NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
FY 2012 Budget Mechanism
Mechanism Percent of Budget
Research Project Grants 71
Research Centers 4
Other Research 2
Research Training 3
R&D Contracts 5
Intramural Research 10
RMS 5

Change by Selected Mechanism

Bar chart. See table immediately below for data.

NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
FY 2012 Estimate Percent Change from FY 2010 Mechanism
Mechanism Percent Change
Research Project Grants -.7
Research Centers -1
Other Research -1
Research Training -1
R&D Contracts 7
Intramural Research 6.9
Res. Mgmt. & Support -1

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Budget Authority by Activity
(Dollars in Thousands)
FY 2011 Actual FY 2012 Enacted FY 2013 PB Change vs. FY 2012 Enacted
FTEs Amount FTEs Amount FTEs Amount FTEs Amount

1.Includes FTEs which are reimbursed from the NIH Common Fund.
2. Includes Real Transfers and Comparable Adjustments as detailed in the "Amounts Available for Obligation" table.

Extramural Research
Detail:
Hearing & Balance $205,869 $206,631 $206,110 (521)
Taste & Smell 59,212 59,431 59,282 (149)
Voice, Speech, & Language 91,402 91,741 91,510 (231)
Subtotal, Extramural $356,483 $357,803 $356,902 ($901)
Intramural Research 74 $38,000 74 $38,000 73 $40,620 (1) $2,620
Ressearch Management & Support 66 $19,975 66 $19,975 65 $19,775 (1) ($200)
TOTAL 140 $414,458 140 $415,778 138 $417,297 (2) $1,519

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Authorizing Legislation
PHS Act/Other Citation U.S. Code Citation 2012 Amount Authorized FY 2012 Enacted 2013 Amount Authorized FY 2013 PB
Research and Investigation Section 301 42§241 Indefinite Combined $415,778,000 Indefinite Combined $417,297,000
         
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Section 401(a) 42§281 Indefinite Indefinite
     
Total, Budget Authority $415,778,000 $417,297,000

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Appropriations History
Fiscal Year Budget Estimate to Congress House Allowance Senate Allowance Appropriation
2004 $380,377,000 $380,377,000 $384,577,000 $384,477,000
Rescission ($2,424,000)
2005 $393,507,000 $393,507,000 $399,000,000 $397,507,000
Rescission ($3,247,000)
2006 $397,432,000 $397,432,000 $418,357,000 $397,432,000
Rescission ($3,974,320)
2007 $391,556,000 $391,556,000 $395,188,000 $393,458,000
Rescission $0
2008 $393,682,000 $400,305,000 $402,680,000 $394,138,000
Supplemental ($7,008,000)
Rescission $2,096,000
2009 $395,047,000 $408,587,000 $406,000,000 $407,259,000
Rescission $0
2010 $413,026,000 $422,308,000 $414,755,000 $418,833,000
Rescission $0
2011 $429,007,000   $428,331,000 $418,833,000
Rescission ($3,677,604)
2012 $426,043,000 $426,043,000 $410,482,000 $417,061,000
Rescission ($788,245)
2013 $417,297,000

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Justification of Budget Request

Authorizing Legislation: Section 301 and title IV of the Public Health Service Act, as amended.

FY 2011 Actual FY 2012
Enacted
FY 2013 President's Budget FY 2013 +/-
FY 2012
FTE BA FTE BA FTE BA FTE BA
140 $414,458,000 140 $415,778,000 138 $417,297,000 -2 +$1,519,000

Program funds are allocated as follows: Competitive Grants/Cooperative Agreements; Contracts; Direct Federal/Intramural and Other.

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Director's Overview

Approximately one in six Americans will experience a communication disorder to some degree in his or her lifetime. For those individuals, the basic components of communication (sensing, interpreting, and responding to people and things in our environment) can be extremely challenging. The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) manages a broad portfolio of both basic and clinical research focused on understanding the normal processes and disorders of human communication. NIDCD advances human communication research and mitigates the associated disorders by conducting and supporting research and research training in three program areas: hearing/balance, taste/smell, and voice/speech/language.

NIDCD Accomplishments. In the past year, NIDCD has supported research activities in the following areas of communication science:

  • How We Hear: Discovery of mammalian genes required for hair cell transduction: Approximately 50-60 percent of severe to profound childhood hearing impairment is hereditary. Changes in over 100 genetic regions have been identified as being associated with non-syndromic hereditary hearing impairment. For example, NIDCD-supported scientists have shown that mutations in the TMC1 and TMC2 genes cause hereditary deafness in humans and mice. Further, the proteins encoded by TMC1 and TMC2 may be the key components of the long-sought after mechanotransduction channel in the inner ear—the place where mechanical stimulation of sound waves is transformed into electrical signals recognized by the brain as sound. Using mice without the TMC1 and TMC2 genes, the scientists discovered the mice had a deficit in the mechanotransduction channels in their sterocilia while the rest of the hair cell's structure and function was normal. If these genes do indeed encode the transduction channel, they will be useful tools to screen for drugs or molecules that bind to or pass through the channel and could be used to prevent damage to hair cells. This is an example of NIH Director's Theme - Investing in Basic Research.
  • Comparative Treatment Study for Sudden Deafness: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (or sudden deafness) occurs as an unexplained, rapid loss of hearing—usually in one ear— either at once or over several days. It is estimated that one in 5,000 people are affected annually. In a large multi-center clinical trial, NIDCD-supported scientists compared the effectiveness of a standard oral steroid treatment for sudden deafness to a newer treatment that has been gaining popularity, intratympanic (IT) corticosteroid injection, the direct injection of steroids into the middle ear. The two treatments differ significantly in cost and number of clinic visits needed, and no prior studies had demonstrated one to be more effective than the other. This trial demonstrated that intratympanic steroids were not inferior to pills in restoring hearing. These results will allow doctors to make better informed treatment decisions for people affected by sudden deafness. For example, IT corticosteroid injection can be used in individuals who cannot take oral steroids due to medical conditions such as high blood pressure. This is an example of NIH Director's Theme - Advancing Translational Sciences.
  • Nose can Detect Bacterial Infection: In addition to detecting odors, our nose also contains chemosensory cells that detect irritants in the air. One result is the ejection of the irritant via a cough or sneeze. NIDCD-supported scientists were surprised, however, to identify chemosensory cells bearing bitter taste receptors in the nasal lining. Why would cells in the nose need to detect something that tastes bitter? In answering this question, scientists may now have identified a new role for the nose: a first-line defender against disease-causing bacteria. They tested whether the bitter taste-detecting cells responded to special bitter molecules (quorum sensing molecules) that bacteria use to let each other know when their numbers are high enough to establish a long-term infection. Using mice, scientists demonstrated that chemosensory cells in the nose do respond to quorum sensing molecules, and stimulate a nerve in the nose to initiate an inflammatory immune response. As a result, blood vessels in the area become leaky to allow white blood cells to attack the bacteria, and the amount of air entering the nose is reduced to restrict the entry of any new bacteria. In this way, the chemosensory cells in the nose lead the body's first defense against invading bacteria. This basic science may lead to new ways to prevent or treat human bacterial infections, whose major portal into the body is via the nasal respiratory pathway. This is an example of NIH Director's Theme - Investing in Basic Research.

NIDCD Plans, Priorities, and Challenges for the Future. NIDCD prioritizes its research investment to identify the most promising opportunities for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, thereby improving the quality of life for people living with a communication disorder. Since communication disorders affect individuals of all ages and ethnicities, NIDCD conducts and supports a broad basic and clinical research portfolio, such as the following areas:

  • Hereditary Hearing Loss: NIDCD places a high priority on the identification of novel genes whose mutation is responsible for hereditary hearing loss. NIDCD-supported scientists study families to identify regions of DNA that may carry the mutation that causes deafness. The putative mutation-carrying regions are identified and compared with DNA from different families carrying deafness genes to published human DNA sequences found in databases. This type of comparative analysis helps them more precisely to identify which region on the chromosome carries a mutation. The scientists must then sequence the mutated gene from the target population to help identify new genes responsible for hearing and for the maintenance of the ability to hear. When important hearing genes are mutated, hearing is disrupted, resulting in hearing loss. Once a gene is identified, NIDCD funds scientists who use the tools of molecular and cell biology and mouse genetics to determine how the gene is regulated and how it functions. By determining the function of the normal protein, the researchers hope to learn how to treat deafness and/or hearing loss caused by its mutation. This is an example of NIH Director's Theme - Investing in Basic Research.
  • Tinnitus: Tinnitus, or ringing in the ears, affects approximately 25 million Americans each year. Severity varies from a mild condition requiring no intervention, to a debilitating disease with significant emotional, social, and economic impact. NIDCD maintains a broad portfolio of research on tinnitus, from basic studies to determine how tinnitus begins, to clinical trials to develop effective treatments. NIDCD has two active clinical trials, each testing different methodologies to treat individuals with chronic debilitating tinnitus. The first, a phase III trial, is evaluating the effectiveness of Tinnitus Retraining Therapy, a treatment strategy that combines counseling (to reduce annoyance) with noise maskers (to reduce tinnitus awareness). The second, a phase II trial, is attempting to determine if the abnormal brain activity associated with tinnitus can be altered though the use of repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation delivered outside the skull. This is an example of NIH Director's Theme - Accelerating Discovery Through Technology.

Overall Budget Policy: The FY 2013 President's Budget request for NIDCD is $417.297 million, an increase of $1.519 million or 0.37 percent from the FY 2012 Enacted level. NIDCD will continue to support new and early stage investigators, and will increase the number of competing Research Project Grants (RPGs) by 7. In FY 2013, NIDCD will support new investigators on R01 equivalent awards at success rates approximately equal to those of established investigators submitting new R01 equivalent applications. The NIH policy for FY 2013 noncompeting RPGs is removal of any inflationary increase and a reduction of 1.0 percent. For competing RPGs, the average cost is 1.0 percent below the FY 2012 level.

The NIDCD allocates a portion of the funds available for competing RPGs to High Program Priority (HPP) projects outside of the automatic pay line. NIDCD will continue emphasizing faculty, postdoctoral and student training in our three program areas: hearing and balance; taste and smell; and voice, speech and language sciences. Trained investigators will be encouraged to choose a research career through the Pathways to Independence program. In FY 2013, NIH will provide an increase of two percent for stipends levels under the Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award training program. This will build on the two percent increase in stipend levels provided in FY 2011 and FY 2012. Stipend levels had been relatively flat for several years, and the proposed increases will sustain the development of a highly qualified biomedical research workforce. Funds are included in R&D Contracts to support trans-NIH initiatives, such as the Basic Behavioral and Social Sciences Opportunity Network (OppNet).

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Program Descriptions and Accomplishments

Hearing and Balance Program: Hearing and balance disorders decrease quality of life, cross all ethnic and socioeconomic lines, and impose a significant social and economic burden upon individuals, their families, and the communities in which they live. Millions of Americans experience a hearing or balance disorder at some point in their life, especially as young children or older adults. Common examples include middle ear infections (otitis media), noise-induced hearing loss, tinnitus, age-related hearing loss, dizziness, and vertigo. Approximately 36 million American adults report some degree of hearing loss1 and almost eight million adults report a chronic problem with balance.2 In addition, two to three out of 1,000 babies born in the United States each year have a detectable hearing loss3,4 that can affect their speech, language, social, and cognitive development.

The NIDCD Hearing and Balance program encompasses over half of NIDCD's portfolio. To study normal and disordered functions of the auditory and vestibular systems, NIDCD employs a wide range of research approaches such as molecular genetics, cellular biology, biomedical imaging, nanotechnology, psychoacoustics, and structural and functional biology. NIDCD supports research that will lead to improved treatments for, and prevention of, hearing and balance disorders. For example, NIDCD is continuing to sponsor initiatives to expand its portfolio on hearing health care research, with the goal of developing research-based technologies that are affordable, effective, culturally acceptable, and accessible to those who need them.

NIDCD plans to expand its research portfolio in outcomes and health services research (HSR) by partnering with well-trained health services researchers already facile with the health care needs in NIDCD's mission areas (hearing, balance, taste, smell, voice, speech, and language). In order to develop a HSR portfolio across the NIDCD, first the Institute will offer administrative supplements to current NIDCD R01 and P50 holders that will allow NIDCD-supported scientists to actively seek out HSR researchers for future collaborations. In FY 2013, NIDCD plans to issue a Funding Opportunity Announcement targeted to HSR. Outcomes of HSR research have the potential to affect large numbers of citizens with hearing loss and other communication disorders. By identifying barriers to effective and affordable health care, devices, and compliance, and developing novel strategies to overcome these barriers, NIDCD research will improve quality of life and help alleviate some of the social and economic burdens associated with communication disorders for millions of Americans.

Budget Policy: The FY 2013 President's Budget request for the Hearing and Balance program is $206.110 million, a decrease of $0.521 million or 0.25 percent from the FY 2012 Enacted level. In FY 2013, the program will continue emphasizing faculty, postdoctoral and student training in hearing and balance sciences. Trained investigators will be encouraged to choose a research career through the Pathways to Independence program. Making R01 awards to first-time and early-stage investigators in the area of hearing and balances sciences will be given funding priority.

1 Based on NCHS/NHIS data for 2007.
2 Based on prevalences from the 1994–95 Disability Supplement to the NHIS and current US population estimates.
3 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Identifying infants with hearing loss - United States,
1999-2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 59(8): 220-223.
4 Gaffney M, Green DR, Gaffney C. Newborn hearing screening and follow-up: are children receiving
recommended services? Public Health Rep. 125(2): 199-207, 2010.

 

Program Portrait: Hair Cell Regeneration, Protection, and Prevention: Potential Therapies for Hearing and Balance Disorders

FY 2012 Level: $16.0 million
FY 2013 Level: $16.0 million
Change: $0.0 million

Sensory hair cells in the inner ear are critical for both hearing and balance. These microscopic cells convert sound vibration or body position into electrical signals, which travel to the brain and provide the sense of hearing and balance. When hair cells are damaged or lost – by disease, injury, aging or toxic drugs – a person experiences loss of hearing or balance. Although fish, amphibians, and birds can replace damaged hair cells with new hair cells, mammals cannot and thus damage is permanent. NIDCD-supported scientists are studying ways to regenerate and protect hair cells in mammals. They have developed methods for generating hair cells from both mouse embryonic stem cells and mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Tests suggest that the cells behave like hair cells in response to mechanical stimulation. Scientists hope these mouse studies will enable them to generate similar hair cell-like cells from human stem cells. Another research team identified a gene in mice, called Rb1, which shuts down the growth of new hair cells early in development. Mice bred to lack the Rb1 gene generated more hair cells than mice with the gene. In addition, mature hair cells growing in culture dishes began to divide and make more hair cells when the Rb1 gene was deleted. In another study, NIDCD-supported scientists treated deafened guinea pig ears with a harmless virus carrying the gene Atoh1. The Atoh1 gene caused nearby supporting cells to become hair cells and, importantly, the treated animals were able to regain some of their hearing. This study, which other scientists are currently trying to reproduce, was the first demonstration of a gene therapy that could potentially improve hearing in formerly deaf animals. Understanding the molecular events that enable hair cells to organize, grow, regenerate, and send messages to the brain may enable scientists to translate basic science into treatments to protect and/or restore lost hearing and balance.

Although these studies show promise, at present, there are no proven therapies to preserve mammalian hair cells, prevent their loss, or regenerate their function. To address this gap area and further advance translational sciences, NIDCD recently invited a group of distinguished scientists to a workshop to discuss regenerative therapies for hearing and balance disorders. The scientists presented state-of-the-science research on inducing, restoring, and preserving hair cell function using a variety of technologies, including gene therapy, stem cells, otoprotection, and pharmacotherapeutics. Discussions at the workshop will help NIDCD prioritize research that could lead to possible molecular therapies for hearing loss and balance disorders. This is an example of NIH Director's Theme - Investing in Basic Research.

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Taste and Smell Program: Each year, more than 200,000 people visit a physician for chemosensory problems such as taste and smell disorders.5 Many more taste and smell disorders go unreported. The NIDCD Taste and Smell program supports the study of the chemical senses (taste and smell) to enhance our understanding of how individuals communicate with their environment and how chemosensory disorders can be identified and treated. Taste and smell play important roles in preferences and aversions for aromas, specific foods, and flavors. By providing knowledge on food preferences, research on taste and smell may help increase our understanding of obesity and diabetes, and help develop prevention and treatment strategies. In addition to obesity and diabetes, other serious health problems like hypertension, malnutrition, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis are accompanied or signaled by chemosensory problems. NIDCD-supported research on molecular and cellular biology, biophysics, and biochemistry of the olfactory and gustatory systems is paving the way for improved diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of chemosensory disorders. For example, NIDCD has published Funding Opportunity Announcements to encourage research on the characterization of the structural properties of taste and smell receptors. This information can be used to develop non-caloric, artificial sweeteners, sweet antagonists, bitter-blockers that moderate the undesirable bitterness of pediatric and HIV medications, and scented lures to the control the spread of insect-borne diseases (such as malaria, which is spread by the Anopheles mosquito). A better understanding of the taste and smell receptors will also offer broader insights as to the general features of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), a class of receptor that is frequently targeted by drugs. GPCRs are embedded in the cell membrane and are responsible for detecting molecules outside the cell and activating signal transduction inside the cell, thus producing the cellular response to the detected molecule.

5 http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/statistics/smelltaste/Pages/stquickstats.aspx

Budget Policy: The FY 2013 President's Budget request for the Taste and Smell program is $59.282 million, a decrease of $0.149 million or 0.25 percent from the FY 2012 Enacted level. In FY 2013, the program will continue emphasizing faculty, postdoctoral, and student training in taste and smell sciences. Trained investigators will be encouraged to choose a research career through the Pathways to Independence program. Making R01 awards to first-time and earlystage investigators in the area of taste and smell sciences will be given funding priority.

Voice, Speech, and Language Program: Voice, speech, and language are tools that all individuals use to communicate or share thoughts, ideas, and emotions. However, approximately 7.5 million people in the United States have trouble using their voice.6 By the first grade, roughly five percent of children have noticeable speech disorders.7 Between six and eight million people in the United States have some form of language impairment.8 Disorders involving voice, speech, or language, as well as swallowing, can have an overwhelming effect on an individual's health and quality of life; they affect people of all ages with or without hearing impairment, including children with autism and adults with aphasia or other speech disorders. The NIDCD Voice and Speech Program performs and supports research to determine the nature, causes, treatment, and prevention of disorders of motor speech production throughout the lifespan. The Language Program is exploring the genetic bases of child speech and language disorders, as well as characterizing the linguistic and cognitive deficits in children and adults with language disorders. Both programs are developing effective diagnostic and intervention strategies for people with voice, speech, or language impairments. For example, NIDCD is developing a Funding Opportunity Announcement to stimulate basic, clinical, and translational research in the area of stuttering. It is estimated that over three million Americans stutter, and though not life threatening, stuttering is life altering and accompanied by a communication burden to the speaker and possibly to the listener.

Budget Policy: The FY 2013 President's Budget request for the Voice, Speech, and Language program is $91.510 million, a decrease of $0.231 million or 0.25 percent from the FY 2012 Enacted level. In FY 2013, the program will continue emphasizing faculty, postdoctoral and student training in voice, speech, and language sciences. Trained investigators will be encouraged to choose a research career through the Pathways to Independence program. Making R01 awards to first-time and early-stage investigators in the area of voice, speech, and language sciences will be given funding priority.

6 http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/statistics/vsl/Pages/stats.aspx.
7 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, Screening for Speech and Language Delay in Preschool Children, http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/uspstf06/speech/speechrev.htm. Shriberg LD, Tomblin JB, McSweeny JL. Prevalence of speech delay in 6-Year-old children and comorbidity with language impairment. J Speech Lang Hear Res 42: 1461-1481, 1999.
8 http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/statistics/vsl/Pages/stats.aspx.

Intramural Research Program:

The NIDCD Intramural Research Program conducts basic and clinical research in human communication, with a primary interest in hearing. Research projects address the genetics of hearing and balance disorders in human and mouse models, identifying molecules and genes important for inner ear development, observing hearing in action by neuroimaging and computer modeling of brain function, and describing how auditory nerve cells communicate. This intense concentration on hearing research and its genetic causes has enabled NIDCD intramural scientists to make significant research progress on this priority for NIDCD. In the past year, NIDCD intramural scientists have further increased our understanding of how genes and gene products play a role in the mechanics of hair cell function in the inner ear, identified gene mutations that cause hearing loss, discovered a mutation in a region on chromosome 3 that may cause stuttering, determined how tumor necrosis factor governs proteins that regulate head and neck cancer growth, and analyzed how enzyme activation moderates nerve function in the developing inner ear and enables hearing to occur. In FY 2013, NIDCD will prepare to consolidate most of its intramural research program from three different locations into the second phase of the Porter Neuroscience Research Center on the NIH campus in Bethesda, Maryland. This move, presently scheduled for early FY 2014, is crucial to improve sharing of scientific resources and to promote further collaborations between NIDCD scientists.

Budget Policy: The FY 2013 President's Budget request for the Intramural Research Program is $40.620 million, an increase of $2.620 million or 6.89 percent from the FY 2012 Enacted level. Intramural Research will receive a $3.000 million increase for costs related to preparing for occupying the new Porter Neuroscience Research Center II facility, and the decommissioning of NIDCD's rental facility at 5 Research Court. This increase will be partially offset by a programmatic reduction of $0.380 million (1.0 percent) in all other costs, including administrative cost reductions, and a reduction of 1 FTE. The NIDCD Intramural Research Program has been a leader in research on hereditary hearing impairment and has identified many genes whose mutation causes hearing loss. In FY 2013, NIDCD intramural scientists will continue their efforts in identifying mutation in genes which impacts hearing, and identifying or studying additional genes involved in communication disorders in humans and animal models.

Research Management and Support (RMS) Program:

The NIDCD RMS activities provide administrative, budgetary, logistical, and scientific support in the review, award, and monitoring of research grants, training awards, and research and development contracts. RMS functions also include strategic planning, coordination, and evaluation of the Institute's programs, regulatory compliance, international coordination, and liaison with other Federal agencies, Congress, and the public. The Institute currently oversees over 1,400 research grants, training awards, and R&D contracts. In FY 2012, NIDCD will publish our Strategic Plan for research. The Plan identifies emerging opportunities in human communications research and helps NIDCD prioritize its research funding for the future. In addition to the scientific plan, NIDCD is in the process of developing an Administrative Strategic Plan to guide development of Institute initiatives for effective and efficient administrative management services in support of NIDCD's scientific mission. Both of these plans will enable NIDCD to better administer and conduct research that will improve both health and quality of life for everyone with communication disorders.

Budget Policy: The FY 2013 President's Budget request for the RMS program is $19.775 million, a decrease of $0.200 million or 1.0 percent from the FY 2012 Enacted level, including administrative cost reductions. RMS FTEs will decrease by 1.

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Budget Authority by Object
(Dollars in Thousands)
Total compensable workyears FY 2012
Enacted
FY 2013
PB
Increase or Decrease
Full-time employment 140 138 (2)
Full-time equivalent of overtime and holiday hours 0 0 0
Average ES salary (in dollars) $164,830 $164,830 $0
Average GM/GS grade 12.2 12.2 0.0
Average GM/GS salary $103,110 $103,626 $516
Average salary, grade established by act of July 1, 1944
(42 U.S.C. 207) (in dollars)
$0 $0 $0
Average salary of ungraded positions (in dollars) 0 0 0

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Budget Authority by Object
(continued)
OBJECT CLASSES FY 2012 Enacted FY 2013
PB
Increase or Decrease
Includes FTEs which are reimbursed from the NIH Common Fund.
Personnel Compensation:
11.1 Full-time permanent $10,192 $10,081 ($111)
11.3 Other than full-time permanent 5,088 5,069 (19)
11.5 Other personnel compensation 483 481 (2)
11.7 Military personnel 85 86 1
11.8 Special personnel services payments 1,995 1,988 (7)
Total, Personnel Compensation $17,843 $17,705 ($138)
12.0 Personnel benefits $4,506 $4,471 ($35)
12.2 Military personnel benefits 44 44 0
13.0 Benefits for former personnel 0 0 0
Subtotal, Pay Costs $22,393 $22,220 ($173)
21.0 Travel and transportation of persons $488 $411 ($77)
22.0 Transportation of things 63 62 (1)
23.1 Rental payments to GSA 0 0 0
23.2 Rental payments to others 1 1 0
23.3 Communications, utilities and miscellaneous charges 276 273 (3)
24.0 Printing and reproduction 42 35 (7)
25.1 Consulting services 302 299 (3)
25.2 Other services 3,772 3,746 (26)
25.3 Purchase of goods and services from government accounts 40,236 45,999 5,763
25.4 Operation and maintenance of facilities 194 192 (2)
25.5 Research and development contracts 5,754 4,228 (1,526)
25.6 Medical care 233 231 (2)
25.7 Operation and maintenance of equipment 498 493 (5)
25.8 Subsistence and support of persons 0 0 0
25.0 Subtotal, Other Contractual Services $50,989 $55,188 $4,199
26.0 Supplies and materials $2,296 $2,293 ($3)
31.0 Equipment 2,438 2,389 (49)
32.0 Land and structures 0 0 0
33.0 Investments and loans 0 0 0
41.0 Grants, subsidies and contributions 336,792 334,425 (2,367)
42.0 Insurance claims and indemnities 0 0 0
43.0 Interest and dividends 0 0 0
44.0 Refunds 0 0 0
Subtotal, Non-Pay Costs $393,385 $395,077 $1,692
Total Budget Authority by Object $415,778 $417,297 $1,519

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Salaries and Expenses
(Dollars in Thousands)
OBJECT CLASSES FY 2012
Enacted
FY 2013
PB
Increase or Decrease
Personnel Compensation:
Full-time permanent (11.1) $10,192 $10,081 ($111)
Other than full-time permanent (11.3) 5,088 5,069 (19)
Other personnel compensation (11.5) 483 481 (2)
Military personnel (11.7) 85 86 1
Special personnel services payments (11.8) 1,995 1,988 (7)
Total Personnel Compensation (11.9) $17,843 $17,705 ($138)
Civilian personnel benefits (12.1) $4,506 $4,471 ($35)
Military personnel benefits (12.2) 44 44 0
Benefits to former personnel (13.0) 0 0 0
Subtotal, Pay Costs $22,393 $22,220 ($173)
Travel (21.0) $488 $411 ($77)
Transportation of things (22.0) 63 62 (1)
Rental payments to others (23.2) 1 1 0
Communications, utilities and miscellaneous charges (23.3) 276 273 (3)
Printing and reproduction (24.0) 42 35 (7)
Other Contractual Services:
Advisory and assistance services (25.1) 302 299 (3)
Other services (25.2) 3,772 3,746 (26)
Purchases from government accounts (25.3) 23,621 26,423 2,802
Operation and maintenance of facilities (25.4) 194 192 (2)
Operation and maintenance of equipment (25.7) 498 493 (5)
Subsistence and support of persons (25.8) 0 0 0
Subtotal Other Contractual Services $28,387 $31,153 $2,766
Supplies and materials (26.0) $2,292 $2,289 ($3)
Subtotal, Non-Pay Costs $31,549 $34,224 $2,675
Total, Administrative Costs $53,942 $56,444 $2,502

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Details of Full-Time Equivalent Employment (FTEs)
OFFICE/DIVISION FY 2011 Actual FY 2012 Enacted FY 2013 PB
Civilian Military Total Civilian Military Total Civilian Military Total
Office of the Director                  
Direct: 3 0 3 3 0 3 3 0 3
Reimbursable: 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total: 3 0 3 3 0 3 3 0 3
Office of Extramural Activities                  
Direct: 15 0 15 15 0 15 14 0 14
Reimbursable: 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total: 15 0 15 15 0 15 14 0 14
Office of Administrative Management                  
Direct: 34 0 34 34 0 34 34 0 34
Reimbursable: 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total: 34 0 34 34 0 34 34 0 34
Division of Scientific Programs                  
Direct: 14 0 14 14 0 14 14 0 14
Reimbursable: 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total: 14 0 14 14 0 14 14 0 14
Division of Intramural Research Programs                  
Direct: 70 1 71 70 1 71 69 1 70
Reimbursable: 3 0 3 3 0 3 3 0 3
Total: 73 1 74 73 1 74 72 1 73
                   
Total: 139 1 140 139 1 140 137 1 138
Includes FTEs that are reimbursed from the NIH Common Fund.
FTEs supported by funds from Cooperative Research and Development Agreements 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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Details of Full-Time Equivalent Employment (FTEs)
(continued)
FISCAL YEAR Average GS Grade
2009 12.2
2010 12.2
2011 12.2
2012 12.2
2013 12.2

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Detail of Positions
GRADE FY 2011
Actual
FY 2012
Enacted
FY 2013 PB
Total, ES Positions 0 1 1
Total, ES Salary 0 164,830 164,830
GM/GS-15 21 21 21
GM/GS-14 16 16 16
GM/GS-13 17 17 17
GS-12 19 19 19
GS-11 11 11 11
GS-10 0 0 0
GS-9 6 6 5
GS-8 1 1 1
GS-7 6 6 6
GS-6 1 1 1
GS-5 1 1 1
GS-4 1 1 0
GS-3 0 0 0
GS-2 0 0 0
GS-1 0 0 0
Subtotal 100 100 98
Grades established by Act of July 1, 1944 (42 U.S.C. 207):
Assistant Surgeon General 0 0 0
Director Grade 0 0 0
Senior Grade 1 1 1
Full Grade 0 0 0
Senior Assistant Grade 0 0 0
Assistant Grade 0 0 0
Subtotal 1 1 1
Ungraded 61 61 61
Total permanent positions 97 98 98
Total positions, end of year 162 162 162
Total full-time equivalent (FTE) employment, end of year 140 140 138
Average ES salary 0 164,830 164,830
Average GM/GS grade 12.2 12.2 12.2
Average GM/GS salary 103,110 103,110 103,626

Includes FTEs which are reimbursed from the NIH Common Fund.

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