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FY 2011 Congressional Justification

FY 2011 Budget

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

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Organization Chart

Organization of the National Institutes of Health: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. Office of the Director: James F. Battey Jr., M.D., Ph.D., Director; Judith Cooper, Ph.D., Deputy Director. Attached to the Office of the Director is the Office of Administration (W. David Kerr, Director). Also attached are three divisions: The Division of Intramural Research (Robert Wenthold, Ph.D., Director), the Division of Scientific Programs (Judith Cooper, Ph.D., Director), and the Division of Extramural Activities (Craig Jordan, Ph.D., Director).

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Appropriation Language

NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

For carrying out section 301 and title IV of the Public Health Services Act with respect to deafness and other communication disorders [$418,833,000] $429,007,000 (Public Law 111-117, Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010)

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Amounts Available for Obligation 1/
Source of Funding FY 2009 Actual FY 2010 Estimate FY 2011 PB
1/ Excludes the following amounts for reimbursable activities carried out by this account:
FY 2009 -$1,235,000
FY 2010 -$2,000,000
FY 2011 -$2,000,000

Excludes $131,161 in FY 2009, and $184,973 in FY 2010 for royalties.

Appropriation $407,259,000 $418,833,000 $429,007,000
Type 1 Diabetes 0 0 0
Rescission 0 0 0
Supplemental 0 0 0
Subtotal, adjusted appropriation 407,259,000 418,833,000 429,007,000
Real transfer under Director's one-percent transfer authority (GEI) -676,000 0 0
Real transfer to the Global Fund to fight HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Tuberculosis 0 0 0
Comparative transfer to NLM for NCBI and Public Access -134,000 -176,000 0
Comparative transfer under Director's one-percent transfer authority (GEI) 676,000 0 0
Comparative transfer to the Global Fund to fight HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Tuberculosis 0 0 0
Comparative transfer from HHS for Autism 0 0 0
Subtotal, adjusted budget authority 407,125,000 418,657,000 429,007,000
Unobligated balance, start of year 0 0 0
Unobligated balance, end of year 0 0 0
Subtotal, adjusted budget authority 407,125,000 418,657,000 429,007,000
Unobligated balance lapsing -67,000 0 0
Total obligations 407,058,000 418,657,000 429,007,000

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Budget Mechanism—Total
(Dollars in Thousands)
MECHANISM FY 2009 Actual FY 2009 Recovery FY 2010 Recovery Act Estimated FY 2010 Estimate FY 2011 PB Change
Number Amount Number Amount Number Amount Number Amount Number Amount Number Amount
Research Grants:
Research Projects:
Noncompeting 606 $208,522 0 $0 52 $17,936 625 $220,063 620 $220,926 (5) $863
Administrative supplements (28) 1,496 (256) 43,648 (3) 194 (28) 1,500 (28) 1,530 0 30
Competing:
Renewal 70 26,372 8 3,850 09 0 66 25,140 68 26,260 2 1,120
New 136 42,331 46 15,121 11 4,039 126 40,350 129 42,152 3 1,802
Supplements 0 0 8 3,641 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Subtotal, competing 206 68,703 62 22,612 11 4,039 192 65,590 197 68,412 5 2,922
Subtotal, RPGs 812 278,721 62 66,260 63 22,169 817 287,053 817 290,868 0 3,815
SBIR/STTR 33 9,811 0 805 2 2,000 33 9,880 34 10,100 1 220
Subtotal, RPGs 853 278,185 840 286,289 825 290,658 (15) 4,369 851 300,968 1 4,035
Research Centers:
Specialized/comprehensive 22 18,059 7 6,110 6 3,587 22 18,100 22 18,460 0 360
Clinical research 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Biotechnology 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Comparative medicine 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Research Centers in Minority Institutions 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Subtotal, Centers 21 18,100 21 18,600 21 18,600 0 0 22 18,460 360
Other Research:
Research careers 32 4.581 0 107 0 0 33 4,900 38 5,900 5 1,000
Cancer education 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cooperative clinical research 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Biomedical research support 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Minority biomedical research support 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other 21 2,990 0 571 0 0 21 3,000 21 3,060 0 60
Subtotal, Other Research 53 7,571 0 678 0 0 54 7,900 59 8,960 5 1,060
Total Research Grants 920 314,162 69 73,853 71 27,756 926 322,933 932 328,388 6 5,455
Research Training:
Individual awards 126 FTTPs 4,758 0 FTTPs 0 0 FTTPs 0 130 FTTPs 4,950 130 FTTPs 5.170 0 220
Institutional awards 207 FTTPs 9,081 0 FTTPs 0 0 FTTPs 0 206 FTTPs 9,100 206 FTTPs 9,460 0 360
Total, Training 333 FTTPs 13,839 0 FTTPs 0 0 FTTPs 0 336 FTTPs 14,050 336 FTTPs 14,630 0 580
Research & development contracts 42 22,373 0 0 0 0 47 23,522 49 25,622 2 2,100
(SBIR/STTR) (0) (16) (0) (0) (0) (0) (0) (106) (0) (109) (0) (-3)
Intramural research 69 FTEs 37,375 0 FTEs 311 0 FTEs 189 75 FTEs 38,437 80 FTEs 39,667 5 1,230
Research management and support 73 FTEs 19,376 0 FTEs 16 0 FTEs 859 75 FTEs 19,715 77 FTEs 20,700 2 985
Construction 0 0 0 0 0 0
Buildings and Facilities 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total, NIDCD 142 FTEs 407,125 0 FTEs 74,180 0 FTEs 28,804 150 FTEs 418,657 157 FTEs 429,007 7 10,350

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Budget Authority by Program
(Dollars in Thousands)
FY 2007 Actual FY 2008 Actual FY 2009 Actual FY 2009 Comparable FY 2010 Estimate FY 2011 PB Change
FTEs Amount FTEs Amount FTEs Amount FTEs Amount FTEs Amount FTEs Amount FTEs Amount
Includes FTEs which are reimbursed from the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research
Extramural Research
Detail:
Hearing & Balance $195,408 $197,035 $199,613 $199,924 $205,493 $210,493 $4,645
Smell & Taste 62,232 59,471 60,626 60,720 62,367 63,775 1,408
Voice, Speech, & Language 82,361 84,218 89,591 89,730 92,290 94,372 2,082
Subtotal, Extramural 340,001 340,724 349,830 350,374 360,505 368,640 8,135
Intramural research 66 34,653 69 36,165 69 37,332 69 37,375 75 38,437 80 39,667 5 1,230
Res. management & support 68 18,338 69 18,669 73 19,354 73 19,376 75 19,715 77 20,700 2 985
TOTAL 134 392,992 138 395,558 142 406,516 142 407,125 150 418,657 157 429,007 7 10,350

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Major Changes in the Fiscal Year 2011 Budget Request

Major changes by budget mechanism and/or budget activity detail are briefly described below. Note that there may be overlap between budget mechanism and activity detail and these highlights will not sum to the total change for the FY 2011 budget request for NIDCD, which is $10.350 million more than the FY 2010 Estimate, for a total of $429.007 million.

Research Project Grants (+$4.0 million; total $301.0 million). NIDCD will support a total of 851 Research Project Grant (RPG) awards in FY 2011. Noncompeting RPGs will decrease by 5 awards and increase by $0.9 million. Competing RPGs will increase by 5 awards and $2.9 million. SBIR/STTR will increase by 1 award and $0.2 million. The NIH policy for FY 2011 RPG's is a 2% inflationary increase for non-competing grants and a 2% average cost increase for competing grants.

Other Research (+$1.1 million). Research Careers increase by 5 awards and $1.0 million in response to the NIH Theme "Reinvigorating Biomedical Research." The Other grants program increases by $0.1 million and maintains the same number of awards.

Training (+$0.6 million). A six percent stipend increase for both Individual and Institutional awards is provided, and the number of full-time training positions (FTTP) is maintained at the same level as FY 2009.

Research & Development Contracts (+$2.1 million). This increase provides for incremental FY 2011 costs for trans-NIH initiatives such as: Therapeutics for Rare and Neglected Diseases (TRND); Basic Behavioral and Social Sciences Opportunity Network (OppNet); and a new Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory; plus ongoing NIDCD contracts and inter/intra-agency agreements; and Program Evaluation and other taps and assessments.

Intramural Research (+$1.3 million; total $39.7 million). Intramural Research will receive a 3.2% increase to cover the costs of pay and other increases, including five additional FTE's.

Research Management and Support (+$1.0 million; total $20.7 million). RMS will receive a 5.0% increase to cover the costs of pay and other increases, including two additional FTE's. NIDCD will be able to invest more heavily in its websites used by the public and NIDCD staff, and web-based IT systems to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of program and financial management.

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Summary of Changes
FY 2010 estimate $418,657,000
FY 2010 estimated budget authority 429,007,000
Net change 10,350,000
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Summary of Changes (continued)
CHANGES 2010 Current Estimate Base Change from Base
FTEs Budget Authority FTEs Budget Authority
A. Built-in:
1. Intramural research:
a. Annualization of January 2009 pay increase $13,450,000 $81,000
b. January FY 2010 pay increase 13,450,000 141,000
c. Zero less days of pay 13,450,000 0
d. Payment for centrally furnished services 5,851,000 117,000
e. Increased cost of laboratory supplies, materials, and other expenses 19,136,000 315,000
Subtotal 654,000
2. Research management and support:
a. Annualization of January 2009 pay increase $10,955,000 $66,000
b. January FY 2010 pay increase 10,955,000 115,000
c. Zero less days of pay 10,955,000 0
d. Payment for centrally furnished services 3,217,000 64,000
e. Increased cost of laboratory supplies, materials, and other expenses 5,543,000 96,000
Subtotal 341,000
Subtotal, Built-in 995,000
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Summary of Changes (continued)
CHANGES 2010 Current Estimate Base Change from Base
Number Amount Number Amount
B. Program:
1. Research project grants:
a. Noncompeting 625 $221,563,000 (5) $893,000
b. Competing 192 65,490,000 5 2,922,000
c. SBIR/STTR 33 9,880,000 1 220,000
Total 850 296,933,000 1 4,035,000
2. Research centers 22 18,100,000 0 360,000
3. Other research 54 7,900,000 5 1,060,000
4. Research training 336 14,050,000 0 580,000
5. Research and development contracts 47 23,522,000 2 2,100,000
Subtotal, extramural 8,135,000
6. Intramural research 75 FTEs 38,437,000 5 FTEs 576,000
7. Research management and support 75 FTEs 19,715,000 2 FTEs 644,000
8. Construction 0 0
9. Buildings and Facilities 0 0
Subtotal, program 418,657,000 9,355,000
Total changes 150 FTEs 7 FTEs 10,350,000

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Fiscal Year 2011 Budget Graphs

History of Budget Authority and FTEs

Bar chart. See table immediately below for data.
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Funding Levels by Fiscal Year
Fiscal Year Dollars in Millions
2007 303.5
2008 394.1
2009 407.1
2010 418.7
2011 429.0

 

Bar chart. See table immediately below for data.
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Full-Time Employees by Fiscal Year
FY FTEs
2007 134
2008 138
2009 142
2010 150
2011 157

Distribution by Mechanism

Pie chart. See table immediately below for data.
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
FY 2011 Budget Mechanism
Mechanism Budget Percent of Budget
Research Project Grants $300,968,000 70
Research Centers $18,460,000 4
Other Research $8,960,000 2
Research Training $14,630,000 4
R&D Contracts $25,622,000 6
Intramural Research $39,667,000 9
RM&S $20,700,000 5

Change by Selected Mechanism

Bar chart. See table immediately below for data.
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
FY 2011 Estimate
Percent Change from FY 2010 Mechanism
Mechanism Percent Change
Research Project Grants 1.4
Research Centers 2.0
Other Research 13.4
Research Training 4.1
R&D Contracts 8.9
Intramural Research 3.2
Res. Mgmt. & Support 5.0
B&F 0.0

Justification of Budget Request

Authorizing Legislation: Section 301 and title IV of the Public Health Service Act, as amended.

Budget Authority:
FY 2009 Omnibus FY 2010 Appropriation FY 2011 President's Budget FY 2011 +/- 2010 Appropriation
FTE BA FTE BA FTE BA FTE BA
142 $407,125,000 150 $418,657,000 157 $429,007,000 +7 +$10,350,000

This document provides justification for the Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 activities of the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), including HIV/AIDS activities. Details of the FY 2011 HIV/AIDS activities are in the "Office of AIDS Research (OAR)" Section of the Overview. Details on the Common Fund are located in the Overview, Volume One. Program funds are allocated as follows: Competitive Grants/Cooperative Agreements; Contracts; Direct Federal/Intramural and Other.

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Director's Overview

Approximately one in six Americans will experience some degree of communication disorder during their lifetime. For those individuals, the basic components of communication (sensing, interpreting, and responding to people and things in our environment) can be extremely challenging. Diseases and disorders of human communication are significant health problems for Americans of all ages, and cross all ethnic and socioeconomic lines. Not only do these disorders often compromise health, but they also affect the emotional, social, recreational, educational, and vocational aspects of a person's life. The economic and personal cost of these disorders in quality of life and unfulfilled potential is substantial. For example, hearing impairment is the number one disability reported for U.S. military personnel fighting the war on terror1. The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) manages a broad portfolio of both basic and clinical research and research training committed to continuing its progress in the science of human communication, the prevention of communication disorders, and the improvement of clinical decision-making for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of communication disorders. In this way, NIDCD strives to reduce the costs of communication disorders, both direct and indirect, on individuals, families, and society.

1 A 21st Century System for Evaluating Veterans for Disability Benefits, Committee on Medical Evaluation of Veterans for Disability Compensation, 2007.

NIDCD Accomplishments. In the past year, NIDCD has supported important activities in the following key areas of communication research:

Hereditary Hearing Loss: NIDCD-supported scientists are working to understand the genes responsible for hereditary hearing impairment. Approximately 50-60 percent of cases of severe to profound childhood hearing impairment are hereditary or genetic.2 Over 100 genetic regions associated with non-syndromic hereditary hearing impairment (NSHI) have been identified. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies are allowing researchers to narrow the location of these genetic regions and identify specific defects in genes that give rise to NSHI. For instance, NIDCD researchers and international collaborators recently sequenced all of the genes within one NSHI locus, DFNB39, from NSHI-affected and unaffected families. They discovered three novel single base pair mutations, all in a cancer gene, HGF, that were linked to NSHI. Interestingly, the mutations did not change the HGF protein itself, but instead altered regulatory or non-coding portions of the gene. This discovery has broad implications in our understanding of how small genetic changes give rise to various diseases. Through collaborative efforts with scientists around the world, NIH is accelerating this kind of gene discovery effort.

2 Morton CC and Nance WE. Newborn hearing screening--a silent revolution. N Engl J Med 354: 2151-2164, 2006.

Taste Sensitivity: A better understanding of inherited variations in taste sensitivity may help healthcare professionals develop population-specific eating plans that are healthy and palatable, so that they are more likely to be followed. NIDCD-supported research suggests that individuals whose early relatives lived in Europe are more sensitive to sweet tastes than those whose ancestors came from other parts of the world. The variation may be explained in part by adaptive evolution. Human ancestors who lived in Northern climates were less likely to encounter plants that contain a lot of sugar, such as sugarcane. Northern-dwelling ancestors had to be more sensitive to sugar to find calories. Sweetness sensitivity may have been less critical for ancestors from the south, where high-sugar plants (and thus calories) are more plentiful. Information on individual differences in sweetness sensitivity may help in the fight against obesity and its related health consequences.

NIDCD Plans and Priorities. NIDCD places a high emphasis on supporting new investigators and maintaining an adequate number of competing Research Project Grants. The NIDCD considers public health needs and scientific opportunity to prioritize its research investment. The goal is to identify the most promising opportunities for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, thereby improving the quality of life for people who face the challenge of living with a communication disorder.

Affordable Hearing Aids: According to Healthy People 2010, only 16 to 17 percent of adults between the ages of 20 and 69 with hearing impairment have used hearing aids, and only 25 to 29 percent of adults ages 70 and over with hearing impairment have used them. Hearing health researchers cite multiple reasons for the gulf that exists between those who need and those who have hearing aids, with cost as an important factor. Since a hearing aid's lifespan is only 4-5 years, a hearing aid wearer could spend tens of thousands of dollars on aids over his or her lifetime. In August 2009, this issue was explored during a working group sponsored by the NIDCD. The goal of the meeting was to develop a research agenda that could help increase the accessibility and affordability of hearing health care for adults with mild to moderate hearing loss. The NIDCD is currently reviewing the workshop participants' recommendations to develop a research agenda, which complements and supplements, rather than replacing, current hearing aid services. Potential research areas of focus for NIDCD include improving hearing aid technology, intervention services, and service delivery to increase options for accessible and affordable hearing health care.

Supporting New Investigators: In order to sustain the pipeline of new investigators, the NIH adopted a new policy, used by the NIDCD since FY 1999, involving the identification of early stage investigators (ESIs). ESIs are new investigators who are within 10 years of completing their terminal research degree or their medical residency at the time they apply for R01 grants. Applications from ESIs are given special consideration during peer review and at the time of funding. The NIDCD continues to demonstrate its longstanding commitment to encourage the development of ESIs. For example, the NIDCD will support a research project with an ESI primary investigator to study hearing impairment in HIV-infected and HIV/tuberculosis-coinfected individuals in Tanzania.

Overall Budget Policy: The FY 2011 request for NIDCD is $429.007 million, an increase of $10.350 million or +2.5 percent above the FY 2010 enacted level. NIDCD will continue to support new and early stage investigators, and maintain an adequate number of competing Research Project Grants (RPG's), particularly R01's. In FY 2011, NIDCD will support new investigators on R01 equivalent awards at success rates equivalent to those of established investigators submitting new R01 equivalent applications. The budget provides a 2 percent inflationary increase for non-competing RPG's, and a 2 percent average cost increase for competing RPG's. The NIDCD allocates a portion of the funds available for competing RPG's to High Program Priority (HPP) projects outside of the automatic pay line. NIDCD will continue emphasizing faculty, postdoctoral and student training in our three program areas: hearing and balance; smell and taste; and voice, speech & language sciences. Trained investigators will be encouraged to choose a research career through the Pathways to Independence program, and the Research Career program will receive an increase of approximately 20% in support of NIH's "Reinvigorating Biomedical Research" theme. Funds are included in R&D Contracts to support several trans-NIH initiatives, such as the Therapies for Rare and Neglected Diseases program (TRND), the Basic Behavioral and Social Sciences Network (OppNet), and support for a new synchrotron at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, as well as increased support for Other HHS agencies through the program evaluation set-aside.

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FY 2011 Justification by Program

Program Descriptions and Accomplishments

Hearing and Balance Program

Hearing impairment, deafness, and balance disorders can impose a heavy social and economic burden on individuals, their families, and their communities. Approximately 36 million American adults report some degree of hearing loss3 and almost eight million adults report a chronic problem with balance4. In addition, approximately two to three out of 1,000 babies born in the United States (U.S.) each year have a detectable hearing loss5, which can affect their speech, language, social, and cognitive development. Accordingly, research projects within the NIDCD Hearing and Balance program encompass a significant portion of NIDCD's portfolio. Both hearing and balance disorders are prevalent, decrease quality of life, and cross all ethnic and socioeconomic lines. To study normal and disordered functions of the auditory and vestibular systems, NIDCD utilizes a wide range of research approaches, such as molecular genetics, cellular, systems, biomedical imaging, nanotechnology, psychoacoustics, and structural biology. The NIDCD has supported research that will help lead to the improvement or prevention of hearing and balance disorders. For example, because Native Americans are two to four times more likely to have hearing loss than the general U.S. population, the NIDCD will use ARRA funding to support a two year pilot study of hearing in newborn Native American infants. This pilot study will be conducted in collaboration with the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) as part of Prenatal Alcohol and SIDS and Stillbirth (PASS) Network. The PASS Network has comprehensive clinical sites working with Northern Plains Indian communities to help decrease fetal and infant mortality and to improve child health in these communities.

3 Based on NCHS/NHIS data for 2007.

4 Based on prevalences from the 1994–95 Disability Supplement to the NHIS and current US population estimates.

5 White KR. The scientific basis for newborn hearing screening: Issues and evidence. Invited keynote address to the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) Workshop sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, October 1997.

Budget Policy: The 2011 budget estimate for the Hearing and Balance program is $210.493 million, an increase of $4.645 million or +2.3 percent above the FY 2010 enacted level. In FY 2011, the program will continue emphasizing faculty, postdoctoral and student training on hearing and balance sciences. Trained investigators will be encouraged to choose a research career through the Pathways to Independence program. Making R01 awards to first-time investigators and early-stage investigators in the area of hearing and balance sciences will be given funding priority.

PROGRAM PORTRAIT: Tinnitus

FY 2010 Level: $6,900,000
FY 2011 Level: $7,100.000
Change: $200,000

Tinnitus is a major health concern that affects approximately 25 million Americans. Individuals with tinnitus experience a ringing, roaring, or buzzing sound in the ears or head. The condition can range in severity from a mild condition which requires no intervention to a severe debilitating disease with significant emotional, social, and economic impact. To address this problem, NIDCD supports an expanding portfolio of tinnitus research. A recent NIDCD funding opportunity announcement, Understanding the Neural Mechanisms Responsible for Tinnitus, invited applications to promote the development of novel intervention strategies.

A significant obstacle for advancing tinnitus research is a lack of knowledge about the specific neural dysfunction(s) responsible for this disorder. Currently supported research projects seek to correlate tinnitus perception with patterns of neural activity in the brain, couple neurophysiology studies with behavior in animal models, and use brain imaging studies to delineate patterns of activity that are specific to individuals with tinnitus. Understanding the basic biology underlying tinnitus will aid in more accurate diagnoses. In addition, NIDCD continues to fund studies that encourage the development of novel treatments. Research strategies include drug therapy, non-invasive brain stimulation, brain stimulation through surgical implantation, and clinical trials on behavioral and environmental interventions.

Many U.S. military personnel returning from active duty experience noise induced hearing loss and tinnitus. In August 2009, NIDCD convened a workshop, Brain Stimulation for Treatment of Tinnitus, to discuss the status of tinnitus research with a diverse population of researchers. Representatives from the Department of Defense, the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Food and Drug Administration, and NIDCD-supported researchers identified promising avenues for the use of neural prostheses to treat problematic tinnitus that remains unresolved after current treatments are exhausted. The meeting discussions identified potential applications of neural prostheses for three distinct patient populations: civilians, veterans, and active military personnel.

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Smell and Taste and Program

Each year, more than 200,000 people visit a physician for chemosensory problems such as smell or taste disorders6, however, many more smell or taste disorders go unreported. The NIDCD Smell and Taste program supports the study of the chemical senses (smell and taste) to enhance our understanding of how individuals communicate with their environment and how chemosensory disorders can be identified and treated. Smell and taste play important roles in preferences and aversions for aromas, specific foods, and flavors. By providing knowledge on food preferences, research on smell and taste may help increase our understanding of serious health problems. For example, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, malnutrition, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis are all accompanied or signaled by chemosensory problems. NIDCD-supported research on molecular and cellular biology, biophysics, and biochemistry of the olfactory and gustatory systems is paving the way for improved diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of chemosensory disorders. NIDCD will support incorporating standard measures of taste and smell into the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a nationally-representative, population based survey. This project will help determine the prevalence of smell and/or taste impairment in the U.S., as well as to identify risk factors for smell or taste loss and possible associated conditions such as obesity, altered dietary intake, and chronic illnesses (such as asthma, cardiovascular disease, etc.).

6 /health/statistics/smelltaste/stquickstats.htm

Budget Policy: The 2011 budget estimate for the Smell and Taste program is $63.775 million, an increase of $1.408 million or +2.3 percent above the FY 2010 enacted level. In FY 2011, the program will continue emphasizing faculty, postdoctoral, and student training on smell and taste sciences. Trained investigators will be encouraged to choose a research career through the Pathways to Independence program. Making R01 awards to first-time investigators and early-stage investigators in the area of smell and taste sciences will be given funding priority.

Voice, Speech, and Language Program

Voice, speech, and language are tools that all individuals use to communicate or share thoughts, ideas, and emotions. However, approximately 7.5 million people in the U.S. have trouble using their voice7. By the first grade, roughly five percent of children have noticeable speech disorders8. Between six and eight million people in the U.S. have some form of language impairment9. The NIDCD Voice, Speech, and Language program continues to determine the nature, causes, and prevention of voice, speech, and language disorders. Disorders involving voice, speech, or language, as well as swallowing, can have an overwhelming effect on an individual's health and quality of life; they affect people of all ages with or without hearing impairment, including children with autism and adults with aphasia or dysarthria. Therefore, NIDCD continues its commitment to develop effective diagnostic and intervention strategies for individuals with voice, speech, or language impairments. Recently, NIDCD participated in a unique opportunity to expand our voice, speech, and language program though the ARRA request for applications, "Research to Address the Heterogeneity in Autism Spectrum Disorders," which was the largest funding opportunity for research on autism spectrum disorders (ASD). NIDCD is funding several research projects from this opportunity, including identification of speech patterns in children and infants who may develop ASD, and evaluation of the efficacy of certain communication interventions for ASD.

7 /health/statistics/pages/vsl.aspx

8 Shriberg LD, Tomblin JB, McSweeny JL. Prevalence of speech delay in 6-Year-old children and comorbidity with language impairment. J Speech Lang Hear Res 42: 1461-1481, 1999

9 /health/statistics/pages/vsl.aspx

Budget Policy: The 2011 budget estimate for the Voice, Speech, and Language program is $94.372 million, an increase of $2.082 million or +2.3 percent above the FY 2010 enacted level. In FY 2011, the program will continue emphasizing faculty, postdoctoral, and student training on voice, speech, and language sciences. Trained investigators will be encouraged to choose a research career through the Pathways to Independence program. Making R01 awards to first-time investigators and early-stage investigators in the area of voice, speech, and language sciences will be given funding priority.

PROGRAM PORTRAIT: Brain Computer Interface for Individuals with Communication Disorders

FY 2010 Level: $1,450,000
FY 2011 Level: $1,500,000
Change: $50,000

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and brainstem stroke are two devastating disorders in which control of voluntary movements is lost, but other functions such as cognition and sensation remain. Individuals with these disorders are often "locked-in" and left unable to convey either basic needs to caregivers or participate in one of the most basic of human activities -- communicating with friends and family. The development of a brain-computer interface (BCI) would allow individuals with speech, motor, and/or other such disorders to communicate easier and be better understood in our communication-driven society. A BCI serves to monitor brain activity and ultimately control external devices based on changes in the user's "thoughts." Decades of NIDCD-supported research on assistive technology and devices developed to improve or restore communication abilities (such cochlear implants, hearing aids, augmentative and alternative communication devices, speech synthesizers, etc.) has produced successful results. To build on these successes, NIDCD and the NIH Office of Rare Diseases jointly sponsored a workshop in 2006 to evaluate the potential for BCIs to provide a means for speech synthesis and control of other forms of assistive technology that support communication in individuals who are "locked in." NIDCD actively encouraged continued development in this area; however, the NIDCD had to defer funding any projects under these initiatives until additional funds were available.

The opportunity to fund the BCI research was provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. The NIDCD chose the BCI as its ARRA Signature Project. This R01 grant entitled "Restoring Communication with an Intracortical Neural Interface System," will support research and subject testing for development of a BCI that records brain activity to control computer-based communication system. Under this grant, individuals with brainstem stroke or ALS will be tested to further develop a neural prosthesis that enables reliable communication simply by imagining movement of their arm which is translated into movement of a computer's mouse cursor. As the subject imagines arm movements, the researchers will refine the algorithms that decode the neural activity and thus control movement of a mouse pointer on a computer screen. This project aims to provide a reliable option for robust communication in individuals either suddenly incapacitated by brainstem stroke or for individuals with ALS, who face continued neurological deterioration.

Intramural Research Program

NIDCD's Division of Intramural Research (DIR) conducts basic and clinical research in the areas of human communication, with the dominant subject of interest being hearing. Research projects address the genetics of communication disorders in human and mouse models; the molecular mechanisms governing inner ear development, neuroimaging, and computer modeling of brain function; characterization of neurotransmission and signal transduction; and development of vaccines against otitis media. This intense concentration on hearing research and its genetic etiology has allowed NIDCD intramural scientists to make significant research progress on this priority for NIDCD. There are dozens of genes in which mutations can cause delayed-onset, progressive hearing loss or severe congenital deafness, and NIDCD intramural researchers continue to identify novel genes and mutations that underlie these hearing loss disorders. This knowledge provides a basis for more precise genetic diagnosis and highlights molecules within the inner ear that are essential for normal function. For example, intramural researchers studied mouse models for hereditary deafness in humans to elucidate how three different human deafness genes contribute to the development, structure, and function of the sensory cells of the inner ear. Another intramural research study identified genetic variation and the underlying mechanism that explains why different individuals perceive the taste of sweet substances differently. This discovery helps untangle the basis of sweet taste preferences and food choices in humans. In addition, Andrew Griffith, M.D., Ph.D., was recently named scientific director for the NIDCD intramural research program. Dr. Griffith is also Chief of the institute's Otolaryngology Branch, and chief of the Molecular Biology and Genetics Section. One of his goals is to recruit more researchers to enhance our translational and clinical research portfolios

Budget Policy: The 2011 budget estimate for the Intramural research program is $39.667 million, an increase of $1.230 million or +3.2 percent above the FY 2010 enacted level. The NIDCD intramural research program has been a leader in research on hereditary hearing impairment and has identified many genes whose mutation causes hearing loss. In FY 2011, NIDCD intramural scientist will continue their efforts in identifying mutation in genes which impacts hearing. This will contribute to NIDCD's Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) goal on identifying or studying additional genes involved in communication disorders in humans and animal models. In accordance with our new Scientific Director's plan, the five additional FTE's in FY 2011 will be utilized to hire additional scientific staff to enhance NIDCD's translational and clinical research.

Research Management and Support (RMS) Program

NIDCD RMS activities provide administrative, budgetary, logistical, and scientific support for the review, award, and monitoring of research grants, training awards and research and development contracts. RMS functions also include strategic planning, coordination, evaluation of the Institute's programs, regulatory compliance, international coordination, and liaison with other Federal agencies, Congress, and the public. The Institute currently oversees over 1,100 research grants, training awards, and research and development contracts. A unique and notable aspect of NIDCD's RMS is the coordination of trans-NIH administrative activities for the NIH Stem Cell Task Force. The NIDCD Science Policy and Planning Branch manages and coordinates the activities and meetings of these trans-NIH stem cell committees and provides support to the directors of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and NIDCD, who serve as the chair and vice-chair of the NIH Stem Cell Task Force. Another area where NIDCD has taken the lead is preventing noise-induced hearing loss in youth. October 2009 marked the one year anniversary of NIDCD's health campaign, It's a Noisy Planet.Protect Their Hearing. This national public education campaign is designed to increase awareness among parents of tweens (8 to 12 year olds) about the causes and prevention of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Noisy Planet education materials have been extremely popular since the program's launch. Visits to the Noisy Planet Web site also have grown from nearly 2000 user sessions in October 2008 to highs of nearly 11,000 user sessions each month.. An integral goal of the campaign is to identify, cultivate, and define strategic partnerships with other national organizations to help disseminate campaign messages and materials. Current partners include the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) and its "Listen to Your Buds" campaign and the Deafness Research Foundation.

Budget Policy: The 2011 budget estimate for the RMS program is $20.700 million, an increase of $985 thousand or +5.0 percent above the FY 2010 enacted level. Consistent with President Obama's Executive Order to expand human stem cell research, NIDCD will continue to manage activities of the NIH Stem Cell Task Force. Additional funds will be utilized for scientific workshops, improved websites, enhanced web-based information systems to improve scientific and administrative management, and upgraded personal computers (on a regular three year cycle). The two additional FTE's will augment scientific management and IT.

Recovery Act Implementation

Recovery Act Funding: $102.984 million

In FY 2009, NIDCD received $102.984 million under the Recovery Act. Of this amount, $74.18 million was obligated in FY 2009 and $28.804 million will be obligated in FY 2010. These funds supported 37 summer research experience projects, providing 52 summer 2009 jobs and at least 29 summer 2010 jobs for students and teachers in research on hearing, balance, smell, taste, voice, speech and language. In addition, more than 250 administrative supplements were made to existing research projects, allowing rapid job creation opportunities and accelerating the pace of research, moving scientists closer to understanding of and developing treatments for human communications disorders such as tinnitus, otitis media, aphasia, and noise-induced hearing loss. NIDCD also used ARRA funds to build research capacity throughout the nation by providing start-up funds to launch the careers of new investigators at six research institutions. Finally, 40 new research endeavors of high program priority to NIDCD, which would have otherwise been un-fundable, are now underway.

NIDCD's ARRA Signature Project is supporting research and subject testing to develop a brain computer interface (BCI) which would allow individuals with movement disorders to be able to communicate more easily. The BCI system will restore an individuals' ability to communicate by recording their "thoughts" and transferring this to a computer screen or prosthetic limb. In addition, NIDCD participated in several trans-NIH ARRA RFAs, supporting four new projects on the heterogeneity in autism, and ten Challenge Grant projects beyond those funded by the OD, expanding research in areas such as hair cell regeneration, cochlear implant technologies, and the neural basis of tinnitus perception.

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Budget Authority by Object
Total compensable workyears FY 2010 Estimate FY 2011 PB Increase or Decrease Percent Change
Includes FTEs which are reimbursed from the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research
Full-time employment 150 157 7 4.7
Full-time equivalent of overtime and holiday hours 0 0 0 0.0
Average ES salary $179,700 $183,295 $3,595 2.0
Average GM/GS grade 12.2 12.2 0.0 0.0
Average GM/GS salary $102,558 $139,007 $2,726 2.0
Average salary, grade established by act of July 1, 1944
(42 U.S.C. 207)
$0 $0 $0 0.0
Average salary of ungraded positions $132,281 $139,007 $2,726 2.0
Budget Authority by Object
(continued)
OBJECT CLASSES FY 2010 Estimate FY 2011 Estimate Increase or Decrease Percent Change
Includes FTEs which are reimbursed from the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research
Personnel Compensation:
11.1 Full-time permanent $10,966,000 $11,593,000 $627,000 5.7
11.3 Other than full-time permanent 5,467,000 5,888,000 421,000 7.7
11.5 Other personnel compensation 545,000 580,000 35,000 6.4
11.7 Military personnel 15,000 16,000 1,000 6.7
11.8 Special personnel services payments 2,735,000 2,970,000 235,000 8.6
Total, Personnel Compensation 19,728,000 21,047,000 1,319,000 6.7
12.0 Personnel benefits 4,669,000 4,978,000 309,000 6.6
12.2 Military personnel benefits 8,000 9,000 1.000 12.5
13.0 Benefits for former personnel 0 0 0 0.0
Subtotal, Pay Costs 24,405,000 26,034,000 1,629,000 6.7
21.0 Travel and transportation of persons 326,000 342,000 16,000 4.9
22.0 Transportation of things 50,000 51,000 1,000 2.0
23.1 Rental payments to GSA 0 0 0 0.0
23.2 Rental payments to others 11,000 11,000 0 0.0
23.3 Communications, utilities and miscellaneous charges 236,000 243,000 7,000 3.0
24.0 Printing and reproduction 32,000 36,000 4,000 12.5
25.1 Consulting services 220,000 234,000 14,000 6.4
25.2 Other services 2,544,000 2,642,000 98,000 3.9
25.3 Purchase of goods and services from government accounts 37,393,000 39,302,000 1,909,000 5.1
25.4 Operation and maintenance of facilities 372,000 376,000 4,000 1.1
25.5 Research and development contracts 10,552,000 11,176,000 624,000 5.9
25.6 Medical care 100,000 100,000 0 0.0
25.7 Operation and maintenance of equipment 737,000 738,000 1,000 0.1
25.8 Subsistence and support of persons 0 0 0 0.0
25.0 Subtotal, Other Contractual Services 51,918,000 54,568,000 2,650,000 5.1
26.0 Supplies and materials 2,861,000 2,855,000 (6,000) -0.2
31.0 Equipment 1,835,000 1,849,000 14,000 0.8
32.0 Land and structures 0 0 0 0.0
33.0 Investments and loans 0 0 0 0.0
41.0 Grants, subsidies and contributions 336,983,000 343,018,000 6,035,000 1.8
42.0 Insurance claims and indemnities 0 0 0 0.0
43.0 Interest and dividends 0 0 0 0.0
44.0 Refunds 0 0 0 0.0
Subtotal, Non-Pay Costs 394,252,000 402,973,000 8,721,000 2.2
Total Budget Authority by Object 418,657,000 429,007,000 10,350,000 2.5

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Salaries and Expenses
OBJECT CLASSES FY 2010 Estimate FY 2011 PB Increase or Decrease Percent Change
Personnel Compensation:
Full-time permanent (11.1) $10,966,000 $11,593,000 $627,000 5.7
Other than full-time permanent (11.3) 5,467,000 5,888,000 421,000 7.7
Other personnel compensation (11.5) 545,000 580,000 35,000 6.4
Military personnel (11.7) 15,000 16,000 1,000 6.7
Special personnel services payments (11.8) 2,735,000 2,970,000 235,000 8.6
Total Personnel Compensation (11.9) 19,728,000 26,034,000 1,629,000 6.7
Civilian personnel benefits (12.1) 4,669,000 4,978,000 309,000 6.6
Military personnel benefits (12.2) 8,000 9,000 1,000 12.5
Benefits to former personnel (13.0) 0 0 0 0.0
Subtotal, Pay Costs 24,405,000 26,034,000 1,629,000 6.7
Travel (21.0) 326,000 342,000 16,000 4.9
Transportation of things (22.0) 50,000 51,000 1,000 12.5
Rental payments to others (23.2) 11,000 11,000 0 0.0
Communications, utilities and miscellaneous charges (23.3) 236,000 243,000 7,000 3.0
Printing and reproduction (24.0) 32,000 36,000 4,000 12.5
Other Contractual Services:
Advisory and assistance services (25.1) 220,000 234,000 14,000 6.4
Other services (25.2) 2,544,000 2,642,000 98,000 3.9
Purchases from government accounts (25.3) 24,313,000 24,875,000 435,000 1.8
Operation and maintenance of facilities (25.4) 372,000 376,000 4,000 1.1
Operation and maintenance of equipment (25.7 737,000 738,000 1,000 0.1
Subsistence and support of persons (25.8) 0 0 0 0.0
Subtotal Other Contractual Services 28,313,000 28,865,000 552,000 1.9
Supplies and materials (26.0) 2,856,000 2,850,000 6,000 -0.2
Subtotal, Non-Pay Costs 31,824,000 32,398,000 574,000 1.8
Total, Administrative Costs 56,229,000 58,432,000 2,203,000 3.9

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Authorizing Legislation
PHS Act/Other Citation U.S. Code Citation 2010 Amount Authorized FY 2010 Estimate 2011 Amount Authorized FY 2011
PB
Research and Investigation Section 301 42§241 Indefinite Combined $418,657,000 Indefinite Combined $429,007,000
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Section 402(a) 42§281 Indefinite Indefinite
Total, Budget Authority 418,657,000 $429,007,000

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Appropriations History
Fiscal Year Budget Estimate to Congress House Allowance Senate Allowance Appropriation 1/
1/ Reflects enacted supplementals, rescissions, and reappropriations.
2/ Excludes funds for HIV/AIDS research activities consolidated in the NIH Office of AIDS Research.
2002 336,757,000 334,161,000 349,983,000 342,072,000
Rescission (397,000)
2003 365,929,000 351,376,000 372,805,000 372,805,000
Rescission (2,423,000)
2004 380,377,000 380,377,000 384,577,000 384,477,000
Rescission (2,424,000)
2005 393,507,000 393,507,000 399,000,000 397,507,000
Rescission (3,247,000)
2006 397,432,000 397,432,000 418,357,000 397,432,000
Rescission (3,974,320)
2007 391,556,000 391,556,000 395,188,000 393,458,000
Rescission 0
2008 393,682,000 400,305,000 402,680,000 401,146,000
Rescission (7,008,000)
Supplemental 2,096,000
2009 395,047,000 408,587,000 406,000,000 407,259,000
Rescission 0
2010 413,026,000 422,308,000 414,755,000 418,833,000
Rescission 0
2011 429,007,000

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Details of Full-Time Equivalent Employment (FTEs)
OFFICE/DIVISION FY 2009 Actual FY 2010 Estimate FY 2011 PB
Includes FTEs that are reimbursed from the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research
Office of the Director 4 4 4
Office of Administration 40 41 42
Division of Extramural Activities 15 16 16
Division of Scientific Programs 14 14 15
Division of Intramural Research 69 75 80
Total 142 150 157
FTEs supported by funds from Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (0) (0) (0)
Details of Full-Time Equivalent Employment (FTEs)
(continued)
FISCAL YEAR Average GM/GS Grade
2007 12.3
2008 12.3
2009 12.2
2010 12.2
2011 12.2

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Details of Positions
GRADE FY 2009 Actual FY 2010 Estimate FY 2011 PB
Includes FTEs which are reimbursed from the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research.
Total, ES Positions 1 1 1
Total, ES Salary $176,172 $179,700 $183,295
GM/GS-15 23 23 23
GM/GS-14 15 16 17
GM/GS-13 18 20 21
GS-12 21 22 23
GS-11 8 8 9
GS-10 0 0 0
GS-9 12 12 13
GS-8 1 1 1
GS-7 5 5 5
GS-6 1 1 1
GS-5 1 1 1
GS-4 1 1 1
GS-3 0 0 0
GS-2 0 0 0
GS-1 0 0 0
Subtotal 106 110 115
Grades established by Act of July 1, 1944 (42 U.S.C. 207):
Assistant Surgeon General 0 0 0
Director Grade 0 0 0
Senior Grade 1 1 1
Full Grade 0 0 0
Senior Assistant Grade 0 0 0
Assistant Grade 0 0 0
Subtotal 1 1 1
Ungraded 57 58 59
Total permanent positions 106 110 115
Total positions, end of year 165 170 176
Total full-time equivalent (FTE) employment, end of year 142 150 157
Average ES salary $176,172 $179,700 $183,295
Average GM/GS grade 12.2 12.2 12.2
Average GM/GS salary $100,057 $102,558 $104,609

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
New Positions Requested
FY 2011
Grade Number Annual Salary
Health Science Administrator GS-15 1 $139,680
Database Systems Manager GS-14 1 115,255
Staff Scientist AD 601 2 260,663
Staff Clinician AD 601 1 160,938
Biologist GS-11 1 97,000
Research Fellow AD 601 1 86,230
Total Requested