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FY 2010 Congressional Justification

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

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Organization Chart

Organization of the National Institutes of Health: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. Office of the Director: James F. Battey Jr., M.D., Ph.D., Director; Judith Cooper, Ph.D., Deputy Director. Attached to the Office of the Director is the Office of Administration (W. David Kerr, Director). Also attached are three divisions: The Division of Intramural Research (Robert Wenthold, Ph.D., Director), the Division of Scientific Programs (Judith Cooper, Ph.D., Director), and the Division of Extramural Activities (Craig Jordan, Ph.D., Director).

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Appropriation Language

NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

For carrying out section 301 and title IV of the Public Health Services Act with respect to deafness and other communication disorders $407,259,000 $413,026,000 (Department of Health and Human Services Appropriation Act, 2009)

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Amounts Available for Obligation 1/
Source of Funding FY 2008 Actual FY 2009 Estimate FY 2010 PB
1/ Excludes the following amounts for reimbursable activities carried out by this account:
FY 2008 -$1,475,000
FY 2009 -$1,500,000
FY 2010 -$1,500,000

Excludes $78,670 Actual in FY 2008, Estimate $89,508 in FY 2009, and Estimate $104,006 in FY 2010 for royalties.

Appropriation $401,146,000 $407,259,000 $413,026,000
Type 1 Diabetes 0 0 0
Rescission -7.008,000 0 0
Supplemental 2,096,000 0 0
Subtotal, adjusted appropriation 396,234,000 407,259,000 413,026,000
Real transfer under Director's one-percent transfer authority (GEI) -676,000 0 0
Real transfer to the Global Fund to fight HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Tuberculosis 0 0 0
Comparative transfer to/from (specify) 0 0 0
Comparative transfer under Director's one-percent transfer authority (GEI) 676,000 0 0
Comparative transfer to the Global Fund to fight HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Tuberculosis 0 0 0
Comparative transfer from HHS for Autism 0 0 0
Subtotal, adjusted budget authority 396,234,000 407,259,000 413,026,000
Unobligated balance, start of year 0 0 0
Unobligated balance, end of year 0 0 0
Subtotal, adjusted budget authority 396,234,000 407,259,000 413,026,000
Unobligated balance lapsing -43,000 0 0
Total obligations 396,191,000 407,259,000 413,026,000

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Budget Mechanism—Total
(Dollars in Thousands)
MECHANISM FY 2008 Actual FY 2009 Estimate FY 2010 PB Change
Number Amount Number Amount Number Amount Number Amount
Includes FTEs which are reimbursed from the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research
Research Grants:
Research Projects:
Noncompeting 627 $204,023 609 $208,773 612 $218,248 3 $9,475
Administrative supplements (36) 2,110 (34) 2,000 (26) 1,500 (8) 500
Competing:
Renewal 79 29,933 81 31,451 74 29,347 (7) -2,104
New 112 32,471 116 34,465 105 31,863 (11) -2,602
Supplements 1 21 0 0 0 0 0 0
Subtotal, competing 192 62,425 197 65,916 179 61,210 (18) (4,706)
Subtotal, RPGs 819 268,558 806 276,689 791 280,958 (15) 4,269
SBIR/STTR 34 9,627 34 9,600 34 9,700 0 100
Subtotal, RPGs 853 278,185 840 286,289 825 290,658 (15) 4,369
Research Centers:
Specialized/comprehensive 21 18,100 21 18,600 21 18,600 0 0
Clinical research 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Biotechnology 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Comparative medicine 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Research Centers in Minority Institutions 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Subtotal, Centers 21 18,100 21 18,600 21 18,600 0 0
Other Research:
Research careers 36 5,340 30 4,500 30 4,500 0 0
Cancer education 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cooperative clinical research 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Biomedical research support 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Minority biomedical research support 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other 19 2,669 21 3,200 21 3,200 0 0
Subtotal, Other Research 55 8,009 51 7,700 51 7,700 0 0
Total Research Grants 929 304,294 912 312,589 897 316,958 (15) 4,369
Research Training:
Individual awards 138 FTTPs 5,334 128 FTTPs 5,000 128 FTTPs 5,000 0 0
Institutional awards 220 FTTPs 8,267 230 FTTPs 8,700 230 FTTPs 8,700 0 0
Total, Training 358 FTTPs 13,601 358 FTTPs 13,700 358 FTTPs 13,700 0 0
Research & development contracts 45 23,462 46 24,331 46 24,331 0 0
(SBIR/STTR) (0) (21) (0) (21) (0) (21) (0) (0)
Intramural research 69 FTEs 36,181 72 FTEs 37,513 74 FTEs 38,576 2 FTE 1,063
Research management and support 69 FTEs 18,696 69 FTEs 19,126 70 FTEs 19,461 1 FTEs 335
Construction 0 0 0 0
Buildings and Facilities 0 0 0 0
Total, NIDCD 138 FTEs 396,234 141 FTEs 407,259 144 FTEs 413,026 3 FTE 5,767

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Budget Authority by Program
(Dollars in Thousands)
FY 2006 Actual FY 2007 Actual FY 2008 Actual FY 2008 Comparable FY 2009 Estimate FY 2010 PB Change
FTEs Amount FTEs Amount FTEs Amount FTEs Amount FTEs Amount FTEs Amount FTEs Amount
Includes FTEs which are reimbursed from the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research
Extramural Research
Detail:
Hearing & Balance $196,833 $195,408 $197,035 $197,406 $202,762 $205,288 $2,526
Smell & Taste 63,273 62,232 59,471 59,579 61,196 61,959 763
Voice, Speech, & Language 80,680 82,361 84,218 84,372 86,662 87,742 1,080
Subtotal, Extramural 340,786 340,001 340,724 341,357 350,620 354,989 4,369
Intramural research 65 34,543 66 34,653 69 36,165 69 36,181 72 37,513 74 38,576 2 1,063
Res. management & support 68 17,859 68 18,338 69 18,669 69 18,696 69 19,126 70 19,461 1 335
TOTAL 133 393,188 134 392,992 138 395,558 138 396,234 141 407,259 144 413,026 3 5,767

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Major Changes in the Fiscal Year 2010 Budget Request

Major changes by budget mechanism and/or budget activity detail are briefly described below. Note that there may be overlap between budget mechanism and activity detail and these highlights will not sum to the total change for the FY 2010 budget request for NIDCD, which is $5.767 million more than the FY 2009 Estimate, for a total of $413.026 million.

Research Project Grants (+$4.4 million; total $290.7 million). NIDCD will support a total of 825 Research Project Grant (RPG) awards in FY 2010. Noncompeting RPGs will increase by 3 awards and $9.5 million. Competing RPGs will decrease by 18 awards and $4.7 million. The NIH policy for FY 2010 RPG's is a 2% inflationary increase for non-competing grants and a 2% average cost increase for competing grants.

Intramural Research (+$1.1 million; total $38.6 million). Intramural Research will receive an increase to cover the costs of pay and other increases.

Research Management and Support (+$0.3 million; total $19.5 million). The 1.8% increase will be partially used to cover the expenses associated with pay raises and other inflationary cost increases necessary to provide for the effective administration, planning and evaluation, public information and communications, and scientific leadership of the institute.

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Summary of Changes
FY 2009 estimate $407,259,000
FY 2010 estimated budget authority 413,026,000
Net change 5,767,000
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Summary of Changes (continued)
CHANGES 2009 Current Estimate Base Change from Base
FTEs Budget Authority FTEs Budget Authority
A. Built-in:
1. Intramural research:
a. Annualization of January 2009 pay increase $12,492,000 $249,000
b. January FY 2010 pay increase 12,492,000 187,000
c. Zero less days of pay 12,492,000 0
d. Payment for centrally furnished services 5,713,000 114,000
e. Increased cost of laboratory supplies, materials, and other expenses 19,308,000 311,000
Subtotal 861,000
2. Research management and support:
a. Annualization of January 2009 pay increase $10,072,000 $120,000
b. January FY 2010 pay increase 10,072,000 151,000
c. Zero less days of pay 10,072,000 0
d. Payment for centrally furnished services 3,298,000 66,000
e. Increased cost of laboratory supplies, materials, and other expenses 5,756,000 93,000
Subtotal 430,000
Subtotal, Built-in 1,291,000
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Summary of Changes (continued)
CHANGES 2009 Current Estimate Base Change from Base
Number Amount Number Amount
B. Program:
1. Research project grants:
a. Noncompeting 609 $210,773,000 3 $8,975,000
b. Competing 197 65,916,000 (18) (4,706,000)
c. SBIR/STTR 34 9,600,000 0 100,000
Total 840 286,289,000 (15) 4,369,000
2. Research centers 21 18,600,000 0 0
3. Other research 51 7,700,000 0 0
4. Research training 358 13,700,000 0 0
5. Research and development contracts 46 24,331,000 0 0
Subtotal, extramural 4,369,000
6. Intramural research 72 FTEs 37,513,000 2 FTE 202,000
7. Research management and support 69 FTEs 19,126,000 1 FTEs (95,000)
8. Construction 0 0
9. Buildings and Facilities 0 0
Subtotal, program 407,259,000 4,476,000
Total changes 141 FTEs 3 FTE 5,767,000

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Fiscal Year 2010 Budget Graphs

History of Budget Authority and FTEs

Bar chart. See table immediately below for data.
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Funding Levels by Fiscal Year
Fiscal Year Dollars in Millions
2006 393.2
2007 303.5
2008 396.2
2009 407.3
2010 413.0

 

Bar chart. See table immediately below for data.
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Full-Time Employees by Fiscal Year
FY FTEs
2006 133
2007 134
2008 138
2009 141
2010 144

Distribution by Mechanism

Pie chart. See table immediately below for data.
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
FY 2010 Budget Mechanism
Mechanism Budget Percent of Budget
Research Project Grants $289,118,200 70
Intramural Research $37,172,340 9
R&D Contracts $24,781,560 6
Research Centers $20,651,300 5
RM&S $20,651,300 5
Research Training $12,390,780 3
Other Research $8,260,520 2

Change by Selected Mechanism

Bar chart. See table immediately below for data.
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
FY 2009 Estimate
Percent Change from FY 2008 Mechanism
Mechanism Percent Change
Research Project Grants 1.5
Research Centers 0
Other Research 0
Research Training 0
R&D Contracts 0
Intramural Research 2.8
Res. Mgmt. & Support 1.8
B&F 0

Justification of Budget Request

Authorizing Legislation: Section 301 and title IV of the Public Health Service Act, as amended.

Budget Authority:
FY 2008 Appropriation FY 2009 Omnibus FY 2009 Recovery Act FY 2010 President's Budget FY 2010 +/- vs 2009 Omnibus
FTE BA FTE BA FTE BA FTE BA FTE BA
138 $396,234,000 141 $407,259,000 0 $102,984,000 144 $413,026,000 +3 +$5,767,000

This document provides justification for the Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 activities of the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), including HIV/AIDS activities. Details of the FY 2010 HIV/AIDS activities are in the "Office of AIDS Research (OAR)" Section of the Overview. Details on the Common Fund are located in the Overview, Volume One. Program funds are allocated as follows: Competitive Grants/Cooperative Agreements; Contracts; Direct Federal/Intramural and Other.

In FY 2009, a total of $102,984,000 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds were transferred from the Office of the Director. These funds will be used to support scientific research opportunities that help support the goals of the ARRA. The ARRA allows NIH to execute these funds via any NIH funding mechanism. Funds are available until September 30, 2010. These funds are not included in the FY 2009 Omnibus amounts reflected in this document.

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Director's Overview

Approximately one in every six Americans will experience a communication disorder of some extent in his or her lifetime. For these individuals, the basic components of communication (sensing, interpreting, and responding can be extremely challenging. To address these concerns, in October of 1988, Congress mandated the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) to support both basic and clinical research focused on understanding the normal processes and disorders of human communication. The NIDCD advances human communication research and mitigates the associated disorders by conducting and supporting research and research training in three program areas: hearing/balance, smell/taste, and voice/speech/language, as these processes are fundamental to the way we perceive and participate in the world around us.

NIDCD Accomplishments. In the past year, NIDCD has supported important activities in the following key areas of communication research:

Mammalian Hair Cell Regeneration. Sensorineural hearing loss is a common form of hearing impairment that occurs when sensory hair cells of the inner ear or auditory nerve cells are destroyed. Until recently, scientists believed that auditory hair cells in mammals could not regenerate following injury. However, in a landmark 2005 study, NIDCD-supported scientists utilized a viral vector carrying the gene Atoh1 to successfully regenerate auditory hair cells in deafened guinea pigs. Recently, NIDCD-supported scientists also have used this therapy to successfully produce functional auditory hair cells in the cochlea of the newborn mouse inner ear. Successful production of functional sensory hair cells in the inner ears of mice suggests that a new therapy to regain hearing in humans may be possible in the future.

Speech Therapy for Individuals with Parkinson's Disease. As many as one million people in the U.S. are diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 15 percent of these individuals are younger than 50 years of age. It is estimated that over 60 percent of individuals with PD have difficulties with speech and voice1. The Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT) program, developed by an NIDCD-supported scientist, focuses on vocal loudness and has been effective for treating speech disorders in individuals with PD. The LSVT program stimulates patients to produce louder healthy voices by using increased effort. The loud and effortful tasks are aimed at stimulating increased movement in the respiratory and laryngeal systems to improve air movement and vocal fold closure, as well as vocal tract function involved in speech. The physiological changes that take place as a result of the treatment have been found to improve voice quality and loudness, articulation, and speech intelligibility.

1 www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/parkinsons_disease/detail_parkinsons_disease.htm

NIDCD Plans and Priorities. Intramural Research and Research Management and Support receive increases to cover the cost of pay and other increases. NIDCD strives to support new investigators and early-stage investigators in addition to maintaining an adequate number of competing Research Project Grants. The Research Project Grants mechanism continues to be NIDCD's highest priority, and accordingly receives most of the FY 2010 budget increase. NIDCD plans to support additional Autism research in FY 2010 by participating in one or more new trans-NIH initiatives in accordance with the recently developed Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee's Strategic Plan for Autism Research, with emphasis on projects involving communication disorders. Driven by compelling public health needs along with recent scientific progress, the NIDCD prioritizes research investments by identifying the most promising opportunities for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, thereby improving the quality of life for people who face the challenge of living with communication disorders.

Moving Forward: Patient-Oriented Research. The NIDCD seeks to conduct and support research and research training to answer patient-oriented scientific questions regarding the optimal means for preventing, screening, diagnosing, and treating disorders of human communication. The NIDCD continues its effort to promote collaborative research between scientists around the world. These endeavors will increase our knowledge to address the wide-ranging nature of the extent of human communication disorders. For example, the NIDCD hosted a workshop entitled "Exploring International Collaborative Research in Deafness and Other Communication Disorders" in September 2008. The NIDCD recognizes the need for well designed prevention, treatment, and intervention studies, using new clinical tools, prostheses and assistive devices, behavioral therapies or interventions, and medications to reap the benefits of the biomedical research progress that will ultimately benefit the individuals with communication disorders.

Moving Forward: Nourishing Budding Scientists. It is critical that a significant pool of qualified scientists be trained to address the growing problem of human communication disorders. Only by maintaining and extending NIDCD's established commitments to research training and career development will the research community be in a position to meet the strategic research priorities. NIDCD provides support for a unique NIDCD R03 program, which is specifically designed to support basic and clinical research of scientists who are in the early stages of establishing an independent research career, and the NIH Pathway to Independence (PI) Award K99 in order to prevent attrition of early stage investigators. Expedited review and priority is also given to funding of early stage investigators receiving their first R01 equivalent award within ten years of obtaining their terminal degree, or completing their clinical training. Support for expedited peer review and funding of individual pre- and post-doctoral fellowships enables individuals in training to obtain awards in a timely fashion while supporting innovative research.

Overall Budget Policy: NIDCD will continue to support new and early stage investigators, and maintain an adequate number of competing Research Project Grants (RPG's), particularly R01's. The budget provides a 2 percent inflationary increase for non-competing RPG's, and a 2 percent average cost increase for competing RPG's. The NIDCD allocates a portion of the funds available for competing RPG's to High Program Priority (HPP) projects outside of the automatic pay line. NIDCD will continue emphasizing faculty, postdoctoral and student training in our three program areas: hearing and balance; smell and taste; and voice, speech & language sciences. Trained investigators will be encouraged to choose a research career through the Pathways to Independence program. Intramural Research and Research Management and Support receive increases to cover the cost of pay and other increases.

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FY 2010 Justification by Activity Detail

Program Descriptions and Accomplishments

Hearing and Balance Program

Hearing impairment, deafness, and balance disorders can impose a heavy social and economic burden on individuals, their families, and their communities. Approximately 36 million American adults report some degree of hearing loss2 and almost eight million adults report a chronic problem with balance3. In addition, approximately two to three of every 1,000 babies born in the United States each year have a detectable hearing loss4, which can affect their speech, language, social, and cognitive development. Both hearing and balance disorders are widely prevalent, decrease quality of life, and cross all ethnic and socioeconomic lines. Accordingly, research projects within the NIDCD Hearing and Balance program encompass a significant portion of NIDCD's portfolio and NIDCD utilizes a wide range of research approaches, including genetics, cellular and systems level analysis, biomedical imaging, nanotechnology, psychoacoustics, and structural biology to study normal and disordered functions of the auditory and vestibular systems. Ultimately, the NIDCD supports research that will lead to the improvement and/or prevention of hearing and balance disorders. For example, the NIDCD collaborates with the National Center for Health Statistics within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for audiometry testing and related questions on hearing loss and noise exposure in adolescents ages 12 to 19 years. In the past year, a study supported by the NIDCD and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, using 1999-2004 data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey found hearing loss to be twice as common in adults with diabetes when compared to those who do not have the disease. Scientists are now trying to determine if diabetes can cause hearing loss by damaging the nerves and blood vessels of the inner ear.

2 Based on NCHS/NHIS data for 2007.

3 Based on prevalences from the 1994–95 Disability Supplement to the NHIS and current US population estimates.

4 White KR. The scientific basis for newborn hearing screening: Issues and evidence. Invited keynote address to the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) Workshop sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, October 1997.

In addition, NIDCD-supported scientists are actively working to understand the genes responsible for hereditary hearing impairment. Hereditary or genetic causes account for approximately 50-60 percent of the severe to profound cases of childhood hearing loss5. At present, over 70 genes causing non-syndromic hereditary hearing impairment have been mapped. Many of these efforts were the result of collaborations involving NIH-supported scientists. Additionally, collaborative efforts with scientists in Columbia, India, Indonesia, Israel, Lebanon, Mexico, Newfoundland, Pakistan, Tunisia, Puerto Rico, and the United States, NIH are accelerating this gene discovery effort. These research investments in understanding the genetic basis of communication disorders will help scientists develop diagnostic tests and better treatments for the millions of Americans with hereditary hearing impairment.

5 Morton CC and Nance WE. Newborn hearing screening—a silent revolution. N Engl J Med 354: 2151–2164, 2006.

Budget Policy: The 2010 budget estimate for the Hearing and Balance program is $205.288 million, an increase of $2.526 million or +1.2 percent from the FY 2009 estimate. In FY 2010, the program will continue emphasizing faculty, postdoctoral and student training on hearing and balance sciences. Trained investigators will be encouraged to choose a research career through the Pathways to Independence program. Making R01 awards to first-time investigators and early-stage investigators in the area of hearing and balance sciences will be given funding priority.

PROGRAM PORTRAIT: Autoimmune Sensorineural Hearing Loss

FY 2009 Level: $1,100,000
FY 2010 Level: $3,100.000
Change: $2,000,000

Autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss (ASNHL) is a rare but important disorder caused by the body attacking and destroying its own sound-detecting and balance-maintaining tissues in the inner ear. It results in potentially reversible and progressive hearing loss and/or dizziness in both ears. ASNHL is complex and is most likely caused by genetic and environmental interactions. The self destructive (autoimmune) response may begin in the ear itself (i.e., organ specific) or it may be a consequence of a systemic autoimmune disorder such as systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis. Glucocorticoids, powerful anti-inflammatory steroids, have been the most common treatment of ASNHL, usually resulting in the restoration of some hearing. Unfortunately, long-term use of these drugs is associated with significant side effects, such as susceptibility to infection, hypertension, osteoporosis, cataracts, nervousness, and insomnia. Encouraged by the success of methotrexate, an immunosuppressive drug used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and cancer, doctors have been substituting methotrexate for long-term treatment with glucocorticoids. The NIDCD supported a large clinical study to determine whether methotrexate is effective in treating ASNHL. The trial was a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, phase 3 clinical trial. Ten study sites spanning the continental United States participated in the trial. Using the largest prospectively enrolled cohort of individuals with ASNHL, the study showed that methotrexate was not effective in maintaining hearing recovery in individuals with ASNHL who had been previously treated with high-dose glucocorticoids. In order to address the need for better treatments for ASNHL, the NIDCD sponsored a workshop called "Immune Mediated Ear Disease/Hearing Loss" in July 2008 The workshop panel consisted of basic and clinician scientists with expertise in the areas of autoimmunity, immunology, otolaryngology, genetics, and infectious disease. Based on the recommendations from the workshop, the NIDCD plans to publish several Funding Opportunity Announcements in FY 2010. The Program Announcements will solicit interdisciplinary research proposals that further our understanding of ASNHL. The intent is to fund research projects that will expand and clarify our understanding of the mechanisms of ASNHL and develop new diagnostic tests. The NIDCD hopes that this investment will translate into less toxic diagnostics and therapies that preserve natural hearing.

Smell and Taste and Program

Each year, more than 200,000 people visit a physician for chemosensory problems such as smell or taste disorders.6 Many more smell or taste disorders go unreported. The NIDCD Smell and Taste program supports the study of the chemical senses (smell and taste) to enhance our understanding of how individuals communicate with their environments and how chemosensory disorders can be identified and treated. NIDCD-supported research on molecular and cellular biology, biophysics, and biochemistry of the olfactory and gustatory systems is paving the way for improved diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of chemosensory disorders, as smell and taste play important roles in our preferences and aversions for aromas, specific foods, and flavors. By providing knowledge about food preferences, research on smell and taste may help increase our understanding of obesity and diabetes. Serious health problems like obesity, diabetes, hypertension, malnutrition, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis are all accompanied or signaled by chemosensory problems.

6 www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/statistics/smelltaste/stquickstats.htm

For instance, in July 2008, the NIDCD sponsored a workshop at the International Symposium on Olfaction and Taste hosted by the Association for Chemoreception Sciences. The workshop, Ligand-Binding Properties of Taste and Smell Receptors, was organized to assess the barriers to progress and the needs of the community to conduct successful structure/function studies of taste and smell receptors. This research may yield crucial information needed to develop a wide range of health-related products, including non-caloric, palatable artificial sweeteners, sweet antagonists, bitter-blockers that moderate the undesirable bitterness of pediatric and HIV medications, and scented lures to the control the spread of infectious disease by insects (e.g., malaria by the Anopheles mosquito).

Budget Policy: The 2010 budget estimate for the Smell and Taste program is $61.959 million, an increase of $763 thousand or +1.2 percent from the FY 2009 estimate. In FY 2010, the program will continue emphasizing faculty, postdoctoral, and student training on smell and taste sciences. Trained investigators will be encouraged to choose a research career through the Pathways to Independence program. Making R01 awards to first-time investigators and early-stage investigators in the area of smell and taste sciences will be given funding priority.

Voice, Speech, and Language Program

Voice, speech, and language are all tools that individuals use to communicate or share thoughts, ideas, and emotions. However, approximately 7.5 million people in the United States have trouble using their voices7. By the first grade, roughly 5 percent of children have noticeable speech disorders8 and between 6 and 8 million people in the United States have some form of language impairment.9 The NIDCD Voice, Speech, and Language program continues to determine the nature, causes, and prevention of voice, speech, and language disorders. Disorders involving voice, speech, or language, as well as swallowing, can have an overwhelming effect on an individual's health and quality of life; they affect people of all ages with or without hearing impairment, including children with autism and adults with aphasia or dysarthria. Therefore, NIDCD continues its commitment to develop effective diagnostic and intervention strategies for people with voice, speech, or language impairments. Recently, NIDCD-supported scientists determined that, for children who struggle to learn language, the choice between various interventions may matter less than the intensity and format of the intervention. This study compared four intervention strategies in children who have unusual difficulty understanding and using language and found that all four methods resulted in significant, long-term improvements in the children's language abilities.

7 www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/statistics/pages/vsl.aspx

8 Shriberg LD, Tomblin JB, McSweeny JL. Prevalence of speech delay in 6-Year-old children and comorbidity with language impairment. J Speech Lang Hear Res 42: 1461–1481, 1999

9 www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/statistics/pages/vsl.aspx

Budget Policy: The 2010 budget estimate for the Voice, Speech, and Language program is $87.742 million, an increase of $1.080 million or +1.2 percent from the FY 2009 estimate. In FY 2010, the program will continue emphasizing faculty, postdoctoral, and student training on voice, speech, and language sciences. Trained investigators will be encouraged to choose a research career through the Pathways to Independence program. Making R01 awards to first-time investigators and early-stage investigators in the area of voice, speech, and language sciences will be given funding priority.

Intramural Research Program

NIDCD's Division of Intramural Research conducts basic and clinical research in the areas of human communication, with the dominant subject of interest being hearing. Research projects address the genetics of communication disorders in human and mouse models; the molecular mechanisms governing inner ear development; neuroimaging and computer modeling of brain function; characterization of neurotransmission and signal transduction; and development of vaccines against otitis media. This intense concentration on hearing research and its genetic etiology has allowed NIDCD intramural scientists to make significant progress on this research priority. In the past year, NIDCD intramural research has shed light on how infection-induced "cross talk" between molecules can cause swelling and fluid retention within the lining of the Eustachian tube, blocking it, preventing drainage, and making an individual susceptible to recurrent ear infection. This work suggests new drug targets to prevent hearing loss in children who suffer recurrent ear infections. Finally, intramural researchers compared inner ear development in normal mice and in a deaf mouse mutant to understand the role of the mutated gene. NIDCD intramural research has identified numerous gene mutations that cause congenital and progressive hearing impairment. Knowledge of the identity of these genes provides a basis for more precise genotypic diagnosis and highlights molecules within the inner ear that are essential for normal function.

Budget Policy: The 2010 budget estimate for the Intramural research program is $38.576 million, an increase of $1.063 million or 2.8 percent from the FY 2009 estimate. The NIDCD intramural research program has been a leader in research on hereditary hearing impairment and has identified many genes whose mutation causes hearing loss. In FY 2010, NIDCD intramural scientist will continue their efforts in identifying mutation in genes which impacts hearing. This will contribute to NIDCD's Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) goal on identifying or studying additional genes involved in communication disorders in humans and animal models.

PROGRAM PORTRAIT: Intramural Research on Hair Cell Development, Function, and Regeneration

FY 2009 Level: $10,200,000
FY 2010 Level: $10,500,000
Change: $300,000

Intramural scientists at the NIDCD conduct distinctive high-risk and high-impact basic and clinical research in the areas of human communication. Over 70% of NIDCD's intramural scientists study some form of hearing research and seven of these individuals focus on the genetic basis of this sensory system. This intense concentration of expertise on hearing research and its genetic underpinnings has allowed NIDCD intramural scientists to make significant research progress on this priority for NIDCD.

Located within the inner ear, the snail-shaped hearing organ called the cochlea contains several rows of specialized cells called hair cells. These cells are called hair cells because their upper surface contains a bundle of hair-like structures called stereocilia. Sound waves deflect the stereocilia, and hair cells convert this mechanical deflection into stimulation of the hearing, or auditory, nerve which in turn sends signals to the central nervous system where these signals are interpreted as sound. Given the highly specialized nature and high metabolic activity of hair cells, it is not a surprise that they are one of the weak links in the auditory system and are often lost as a consequence of excessive noise, drugs, trauma, or the normal aging process. Once destroyed, mammalian hair cells cannot be spontaneously regenerated, resulting in hearing loss.

In the past few years, NIDCD intramural scientists have made remarkable progress in understanding hair cell structure, development, and function. They have determined the master gene regulatory programs and growth factor gradients that determine the fate and orientation of these cells within the developing cochlea. In addition, they have identified a number of genes whose mutation results in hearing impairment in human populations, providing important clues about the molecular mechanisms that underlie hair cell function. This rapid progress towards understanding hair cell structure development and function is driven by a multidisciplinary approach. Discovery of genes that underlie hereditary hearing impairment, state of the art imaging of hair cells that approaches the molecular level of resolution, animal models with targeted gene mutations, and in vitro culture systems have all played critical roles. All of this expertise is resident in the collaborative collection of laboratories assembled in NIDCD's Intramural Research Program. The NIDCD will continue its focus in this area so that the new understanding of hair cell development, structure, and function can provide important clues about potential strategies for regenerating human hair cells and restoring auditory function in individuals who develop a hearing impairment as a consequence of hair cell loss.

Research Management and Support (RMS) Program

NIDCD RMS activities provide administrative, budgetary, logistical, and scientific support in the review, award, and monitoring of research grants, training awards and research and development contracts. RMS functions also include strategic planning, coordination, and evaluation of the Institute's programs, regulatory compliance, international coordination, and liaison with other Federal agencies, Congress, and the public. The Institute currently oversees over 1,300 research grants, training awards, and research and development contracts. A unique and notable aspect of NIDCD's RMS is the coordination of trans-NIH administrative activities for the NIH Stem Cell Task Force. The NIDCD Science Policy and Planning Branch manages and coordinates the activities and meetings of these trans-NIH stem cell committees and provides support to the directors of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and NIDCD, who serve as the chair and vice-chair of the NIH Stem Cell Task Force. Another area where NIDCD has taken the lead is preventing noise-induced hearing loss in youth. The NIDCD Office of Communication and Public Liaison has recently launched the campaign It's a Noisy Planet. Protect Their Hearing. This national public education campaign is designed to increase awareness among parents of children ages 8 to 12 about the causes of and how to prevent noise-induced hearing loss. With this information, parents and other adults can encourage children to adopt healthy hearing habits before and during the time that they develop listening, leisure, and working habits.

Budget Policy: The 2010 budget estimate for the RMS program is $19.461 million, an increase of $335 thousand or 1.8 percent from the FY 2009 estimate. Consistent with President Obama's Executive Order to expand human stem cell research, NIDCD will continue to manage activities of the NIH Stem Cell Task Force.

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Budget Authority by Object
Total compensable workyears FY 2009 Estimate FY 2010 PB Increase or Decrease Percent Change
Includes FTEs which are reimbursed from the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research
Full-time employment 141 144 3 2.1
Full-time equivalent of overtime and holiday hours 0 0 0 0.0
Average ES salary $176,172 $179,695 $3,523 2.0
Average GM/GS grade 12.3 12.3 0.0 0.0
Average GM/GS salary $100,440 $102,449 $2,009 2.0
Average salary, grade established by act of July 1, 1944
(42 U.S.C. 207)
$0 $0 $0 0.0
Average salary of ungraded positions $135,562 $138,274 $2,711 2.0
Budget Authority by Object
(continued)
OBJECT CLASSES FY 2009 Estimate FY 2010 PB Increase or Decrease Percent Change
Includes FTEs which are reimbursed from the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research
Personnel Compensation:
11.1 Full-time permanent $10,111,000 $10,605,000 $494,000 4.9
11.3 Other than full-time permanent 5,021,000 5,317,000 296,000 5.9
11.5 Other personnel compensation 471,000 498,000 27,000 5.7
11.7 Military personnel 66,000 69,000 3,000 4.5
11.8 Special personnel services payments 2,581,000 2,746,000 165,000 6.4
Total, Personnel Compensation 18,250,000 19,235,000 985,000 5.4
12.0 Personnel benefits 4,314,000 4,544,000 230,000 5.3
12.2 Military personnel benefits 0 0 0 0.0
13.0 Benefits for former personnel 0 0 0 0.0
Subtotal, Pay Costs 22,564,000 23,779,000 1,215,000 5.4
21.0 Travel and transportation of persons 460,000 455,000 (5,000) -1.1
22.0 Transportation of things 55,000 54,000 (1,000) -1.8
23.1 Rental payments to GSA 0 0 0 0.0
23.2 Rental payments to others 2,000 2,000 0 0.0
23.3 Communications, utilities and miscellaneous charges 240,000 239,000 (1,000) -0.4
24.0 Printing and reproduction 60,000 58,000 (2,000) -3.3
25.1 Consulting services 252,000 250,000 (2,000) -0.8
25.2 Other services 2,275,000 2,260,000 (15,000) -0.7
25.3 Purchase of goods and services from government accounts 39,316,000 39,496,000 180,000 0.5
25.4 Operation and maintenance of facilities 169,000 169,000 0 0.0
25.5 Research and development contracts 8,575,000 8,575,000 0 0.0
25.6 Medical care 925,000 932,000 7,000 0.8
25.7 Operation and maintenance of equipment 694,000 694,000 0 0.0
25.8 Subsistence and support of persons 0 0 0 0.0
25.0 Subtotal, Other Contractual Services 52,206,000 52,376,000 170,000 0.3
26.0 Supplies and materials 3,040,000 3,058,000 18,000 0.6
31.0 Equipment 2,343,000 2,347,000 4,000 0.2
32.0 Land and structures 0 0 0 0.0
33.0 Investments and loans 0 0 0 0.0
41.0 Grants, subsidies and contributions 326,289,000 330,658,000 4,369,000 1.3
42.0 Insurance claims and indemnities 0 0 0 0.0
43.0 Interest and dividends 0 0 0 0.0
44.0 Refunds 0 0 0 0.0
Subtotal, Non-Pay Costs 384,695,000 389,247,000 4,552,000 1.2
Total Budget Authority by Object 407,259,000 413,026,000 5,767,000 1.4

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Salaries and Expenses
OBJECT CLASSES FY 2009 Estimate FY 2010 PB Increase or Decrease Percent Change
Personnel Compensation:
Full-time permanent (11.1) $10,111,000 $10,605,000 $494,000 4.9
Other than full-time permanent (11.3) 5,021,000 5,317,000 296,000 5.9
Other personnel compensation (11.5) 471,000 498,000 27,000 5.7
Military personnel (11.7) 66,000 69,000 3,000 4.5
Special personnel services payments (11.8) 2,581,000 2,746,000 165,000 6.4
Total Personnel Compensation (11.9) 18,250,000 19,235,000 985,000 5.4
Civilian personnel benefits (12.1) 4,314,000 4,544,000 230,000 5.3
Military personnel benefits (12.2) 0 0 0 0.0
Benefits to former personnel (13.0) 0 0 0 0.0
Subtotal, Pay Costs 22,564,000 23,779,000 1,215,000 5.4
Travel (21.0) 460,000 455,000 (5,000) -1.1
Transportation of things (22.0) 55,000 54,000 (1,000) -1.8
Rental payments to others (23.2) 2,000 2,000 0 0.0
Communications, utilities and miscellaneous charges (23.3) 240,000 239,000 (1,000) -0.4
Printing and reproduction (24.0) 60,000 58,000 (2,000) -3.3
Other Contractual Services:
Advisory and assistance services (25.1) 252,000 250,000 (2,000) -0.8
Other services (25.2) 2,275,000 2,260,000 (15,000) -0.7
Purchases from government accounts (25.3) 24,353,000 24,533,000 180,000 0.7
Operation and maintenance of facilities (25.4) 169,000 169,000 0 0.0
Operation and maintenance of equipment (25.7 694,000 694,000 0 0.0
Subsistence and support of persons (25.8) 0 0 0 0.0
Subtotal Other Contractual Services 27,743,000 27,906,000 163,000 0.6
Supplies and materials (26.0) 3,036,000 3,054,000 18,000 0.6
Subtotal, Non-Pay Costs 31,596,000 31,768,000 172,000 0.5
Total, Administrative Costs 54,160,000 55,547,000 1,387,000 2.6

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Authorizing Legislation
PHS Act/Other Citation U.S. Code Citation 2007 Amount Authorized FY 2008 Enacted 2008 Amount Authorized FY 2009 Budget Estimate
Research and Investigation Section 301 42§241 Indefinite Combined $407,259,000 Indefinite Combined $413,026,000
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Section 402(a) 42§281 Indefinite Indefinite
Total, Budget Authority 407,259,000 $413,026,000

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Appropriations History
Fiscal Year Budget Estimate to Congress House Allowance Senate Allowance Appropriation 1/
1/ Reflects enacted supplementals, rescissions, and reappropriations.
2/ Excludes funds for HIV/AIDS research activities consolidated in the NIH Office of AIDS Research.
2001 276,418,000 2/ 301,787,000 303,541,000 300,581,000
Rescission (100,000)
2002 336,757,000 334,161,000 349,983,000 342,072,000
Rescission (397,000)
2003 365,929,000 351,376,000 372,805,000 372,805,000
Rescission (2,423,000)
2004 380,377,000 380,377,000 384,577,000 384,477,000
Rescission (2,424,000)
2005 393,507,000 393,507,000 399,000,000 397,507,000
Rescission (3,247,000)
2006 397,432,000 397,432,000 418,357,000 397,432,000
Rescission (3,974,320)
2007 391,556,000 391,556,000 395,188,000 393,458,000
Rescission 0
2008 393,682,000 400,305,000 402,680,000 401,146,000
Rescission (7,008,000)
Supplemental 2,096,000
2009 395,047,000 408,587,000 406,000,000 407,259,000
Rescission 0
2010 413,026,000

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Details of Full-Time Equivalent Employment (FTEs)
OFFICE/DIVISION FY 2008 Actual FY 2009 Estimate FY 2010 PB
Includes FTEs that are reimbursed from the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research
Office of the Director 4 4 4
Office of Administration 38 38 38
Division of Extramural Activities 16 16 16
Division of Scientific Programs 11 11 12
Division of Intramural Research 69 72 74
Total 138 141 144
FTEs supported by funds from Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (0) (0) (0)
Details of Full-Time Equivalent Employment (FTEs)
(continued)
FISCAL YEAR Average GM/GS Grade
2006 12.2
2007 12.3
2008 12.3
2009 12.3
2010 12.3

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Details of Positions
GRADE FY 2008 Actual FY 2009 Estimate FY 2010 PB
Includes FTEs which are reimbursed from the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research.
Total, ES Positions 1 1 1
Total, ES Salary $167,783 $176,172 $179,695
GM/GS-15 21 21 21
GM/GS-14 15 15 15
GM/GS-13 21 21 21
GS-12 16 16 16
GS-11 10 10 10
GS-10 0 0 0
GS-9 12 12 12
GS-8 1 1 1
GS-7 3 3 3
GS-6 0 0 0
GS-5 2 2 2
GS-4 1 1 1
GS-3 0 0 0
GS-2 0 0 0
GS-1 0 0 0
Subtotal 102 102 192
Grades established by Act of July 1, 1944 (42 U.S.C. 207):
Assistant Surgeon General 0 0 0
Director Grade 0 0 0
Senior Grade 0 0 0
Full Grade 0 0 0
Senior Assistant Grade 0 0 0
Assistant Grade 0 0 0
Subtotal 0 0 0
Ungraded 54 54 55
Total permanent positions 102 103 104
Total positions, end of year 157 157 158
Total full-time equivalent (FTE) employment, end of year 138 141 144
Average ES salary $167,783 $176,172 $179,695
Average GM/GS grade 12.3 12.3 12.3
Average GM/GS salary $95,840 $100,440 $102,449

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