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FY 2009 Congressional Justification

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

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Organization Chart

Organization of the National Institutes of Health: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. Office of the Director: James F. Battey Jr., M.D., Ph.D., Director; Judith Cooper, Ph.D., Deputy Director. Attached to the Office of the Director is the Office of Administration (W. David Kerr, Director). Also attached are three divisions: The Division of Intramural Research (Robert Wenthold, Ph.D., Director), the Division of Scientific Programs (Judith Cooper, Ph.D., Director), and the Division of Extramural Activities (Craig Jordan, Ph.D., Director).

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FY 2009 Proposed Appropriation Language

NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

For carrying out section 301 and title IV of the Public Health Services Act with respect to deafness and other communication disorders $401,146,000 $395,047,000 (Department of Health and Human Services Appropriation Act, 2008)

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Amounts Available for Obligation 1/
Source of Funding FY 2007 Actual FY 2008 Enacted FY 2009 Estimate
1/ Excludes the following amounts for reimbursable activities carried out by this account:
FY 2007 - $1,292,000 FY 2008 -$1,500,000 FY 2009 -$1,500,000
Excludes $113,000 in FY 2008 and $120,000 in FY 2009 for royalties.
Appropriation $393,458,000 $401,146,000 $395,047,000
Pay cost add-on 210,000 0 0
Rescission 0 -7,008,000 0
Subtotal, adjusted appropriation 393,668,000 394,138,000 395,047,000
Real transfer under Director's one-percent transfer authority (GEI) -676,000 0 0
Comparative transfer to NIBIB -18,000 0 0
Comparative transfer to OD -8,000 0 0
Comparative transfer to NCRR -101,000 0 0
Comparative transfers to the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Admin. and Mgmt. and to the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs -1,000 0 0
Comparative transfer under Director's one-percent transfer authority (GEI) 676,000 0 0
Subtotal, adjusted budget authority 393,540,000 394,138,000 395,047,000
Unobligated balance lapsing -55,000 0 0
Total obligations 393,485,000 394,138,000 395,047,000

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Budget Mechanism—Total
(Dollars in Thousands)
MECHANISM FY 2007 Actual FY 2008 Enacted FY 2009 Estimate Change
Number Amount Number Amount Number Amount Number Amount
Includes FTEs which are reimbursed from the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research
Research Grants:
Research Projects:
Noncompeting 628 $199,207 627 $202,995 634 $205,980 7 $2,985
Administrative supplements (18) 1,150 (18) 1,150 (18) 1,150 (0) 0
Competing:
Renewal 86 29,521 79 27,385 75 25,910 (4) -1,475
New 147 38,354 135 35,579 127 33,662 (8) -1,917
Supplements 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Subtotal, competing 233 67,875 214 62,964 202 59,572 (12) -3,392
Subtotal, RPGs 861 268,232 841 267,109 836 266,702 (5) -407
SBIR/STTR 32 10,096 30 9,500 30 9,500 0 0
Subtotal, RPGs 893 278,328 871 276,609 866 276,202 (5) -407
Research Centers:
Specialized/comprehensive 19 15,829 20 16,985 20 16,985 0 0
Clinical research 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Biotechnology 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Comparative medicine 0 95 0 94 0 94 0 0
Research Centers in Minority Institutions 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Subtotal, Centers 19 15,924 20 17,079 20 17,079 0 0
Other Research:
Research careers 44 7,232 46 7,645 45 7,645 (1) 0
Cancer education 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cooperative clinical research 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Biomedical research support 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Minority biomedical research support 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other 25 2,704 25 2,673 25 2,673 0 0
Subtotal, Other Research 69 9,936 71 10,318 70 10,318 (1) 0
Total Research Grants 981 304,188 962 304,006 956 303,599 (6) -407
Research Training:
Individual awards 152 FTTPs 5,719 152 FTTPs 5,720 151 FTTPs 5,720 (1) 0
Institutional awards 201 FTTPs 7,982 201 FTTPs 7,980 200 FTTPs 7,980 (1) 0
Total, Training 353 FTTPs 13,701 353 FTTPs 13,700 351 FTTPs 13,700 (2) 0
Research & development contracts 52 22,687 52 22,000 52 22,000 0 0
(SBIR/STTR) (0) (0) (0) (0) (0) (0) (0) (0)
Intramural research 66 FTEs 34,638 66 FTEs 35,831 67 FTEs 36,868 1 FTE 1,037
Research management and support 68 FTEs 18,326 68 FTEs 18,601 68 FTEs 18,880 0 FTEs 279
Construction 0 0 0 0
Buildings and Facilities 0 0 0 0
Total, NIDCD 134 FTEs 393,540 134 FTEs 394,138 135 FTEs 395,047 1 FTE 909

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Budget Authority by Program
(Dollars in Thousands)
FY 2005 Actual FY 2006 Actual FY 2007 Actual FY 2007 Comparable FY 2008 Enacted FY 2009 Estimate Change
FTEs Amount FTEs Amount FTEs Amount FTEs Amount FTEs Amount FTEs Amount FTEs Amount
Includes FTEs which are reimbursed from the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research
Extramural Research
Detail:
Hearing & Balance $201,072 $196,833 $195,408 $195,738 $195,235 $195,003 -$232
Smell & Taste 62,480 63,273 62,232 62,337 62,178 62,104 -74
Voice, Speech, & Language 79,452 80,680 82,361 82,501 82,293 82,192 -101
Subtotal, Extramural 343,004 340,786 340,001 340,576 339,706 339,299 -407
Intramural research 72 34,422 65 34,543 66 34,653 66 34,638 66 35,831 67 36,868 1 1,037
Res. management & support 68 16,834 68 17,859 68 18,338 68 18,326 68 18,601 68 18,880 0 279
TOTAL 140 394,260 133 393,188 134 392,992 134 393,540 134 394,138 135 395,047 1 909

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Major Changes in the Fiscal Year 2009 Budget Request

Major changes by budget mechanism and/or budget activity detail are briefly described below. Note that there may be overlap between budget mechanism and activity detail and these highlights will not sum to the total change for the FY 2009 budget request for NIDCD, which is $0.909 million more than the FY 2008 Estimate, for a total of $395.047 million.

Research Project Grants (-$0.4 million; total $276.2 million). NIDCD will support a total of 866 Research Project Grant (RPG) awards in FY 2009. Noncompeting RPGs will increase by 7 awards and $3.0 million. Competing RPGs will decrease by 12 awards and $3.4 million. The NIH policy for FY 2009 RPG's is no inflationary increase for non-competing grants and no average cost increase for competing grants.

Intramural Research (+$1.0 million; total $36.9 million). The increase will be utilized to offset cost increases for pay, centrally furnished services, and laboratory supplies, materials, and other expenses.

Research Management and Support (+$0.3 million; total $18.9 million). The increase will be utilized to offset cost increases for pay, centrally furnished services, and other expenses.

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Summary of Changes
FY 2008 enacted $0
FY 2009 estimated budget authority 0
Net change 0
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Summary of Changes (continued)
CHANGES 2008 Enacted Base Change from Base
FTEs Budget Authority FTEs Budget Authority
A. Built-in:
1. Intramural research:
a. Annualization of January 2008 pay increase $10,940,000 $217,000
b. January FY 2009 pay increase 10,940,000 438,000
c. One less day of pay 10,940,000 (42,000)
d. Payment for centrally furnished services 5,940,000 89,000
e. Increased cost of laboratory supplies, materials, and other expenses 18,951,000 377,000
Subtotal 1,079,000
2. Research management and support:
a. Annualization of January 2008 pay increase $9,304,000 $104,000
b. January FY 2009 pay increase 9,304,000 202,000
c. One less day of pay 9,304,000 (36,000)
d. Payment for centrally furnished services 2,851,000 43,000
e. Increased cost of laboratory supplies, materials, and other expenses 6,446,000 128,000
Subtotal 441,000
Subtotal, Built-in 1,520,000
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Summary of Changes (continued)
CHANGES 2008 Enacted Base Change from Base
Number Amount Number Amount
B. Program:
1. Research project grants:
a. Noncompeting 627 $204,145,000 7 $2,985,000
b. Competing 214 62,964,000 (12) (3,392,000)
c. SBIR/STTR 30 9,500,000 0 0
Total 871 276,609,000 (5) (407,000)
2. Research centers 20 17,079,000 0 0
3. Other research 71 10,318,000 (1) 0
4. Research training 353 13,700,000 (2) 0
5. Research and development contracts 52 22,000,000 0 0
Subtotal, extramural (407,000)
6. Intramural research 66 FTEs 35,831,000 1 FTE (42,000)
7. Research management and support 68 FTEs 18,601,000 0 FTEs (162,000)
8. Construction 0 0
9. Buildings and Facilities 0 0
Subtotal, program 394,138,000 (611,000)
Total changes 134 FTEs 1 FTE 909,000

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Fiscal Year 2009 Budget Graphs

History of Budget Authority and FTEs

Bar chart. See table immediately below for data.
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Funding Levels by Fiscal Year
Fiscal Year Dollars in Millions
2005 394.3
2006 393.2
2007 393.5
2008 394.1
2009 395.0

 

Bar chart. See table immediately below for data.
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Full-Time Employees by Fiscal Year
FY FTEs
2005 140
2006 133
2007 134
2008 134
2009 135

Distribution by Mechanism

Pie chart. See table immediately below for data.
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
FY 2009 Budget Mechanism
(Dollars in Thousands)
Mechanism Budget Percent of Budget
Research Project Grants $276,202 276
Research Centers $17,079 17
Other Research $10,318 10
Research Training $13,700 14
R&D Contracts $22,000 22
Intramural Research $36,868 37
RM&S $18,880 19

Change by Selected Mechanism

Bar chart. See table immediately below for data.
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
FY 2009 Estimate
Percent Change from FY 2008 Mechanism
Mechanism Percent Change
Research Project Grants -0.2
Research Centers 0
Other Research 0
Research Training 0
R&D Contracts 0
Intramural Research 2.8
Res. Mgmt. & Support 1.5

Authorizing Legislation: Section 301 and title IV of the Public Health Service Act, as amended.

Budget Authority:
FY 2007 Actual FY 2008 Enacted FY 2009 Estimate Increase or Decrease
FTE BA FTE BA FTE BA FTE BA
134 393,540,000 134 394,138,000 135 395,047,000 1 909,000

This document provides justification for the Fiscal Year (FY) 2009 activities of the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), including NIH/AIDS activities. Details of the FY 2009 HIV/AIDS activities are in the "Office of AIDS Research (OAR)" Section of the Overview. Details on the Common Fund are located in the Overview, Volume One. Program funds are allocated as follows: Competitive Grants/Cooperative Agreements; Contracts; Direct Federal/Intramural and Other.

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Director's Overview

Approximately one of every six Americans will experience varying degrees of some form of communication disorder in his or her lifetime. For these individuals, many aspects of contemporary life, including common acts such as speaking, listening, and conveying wants and needs are often challenging. The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) is committed to advancing human communication and its associated disorders by conducting and supporting research and research training in the normal and disordered processes of hearing, balance, smell, taste, voice, speech, and language. These processes are fundamental to the way we perceive and participate in the world around us.

In October 2008, the NIDCD will celebrate its 20th anniversary. Over the past two decades, extraordinary research opportunities have led to scientific breakthroughs in the study of genes, proteins, sensory and supporting cells, and molecular processes that directly affect our understanding of communication disorders. These advances have been accompanied by substantial progress in behavioral studies that increase our understanding of how communication processes contribute to a person's health. To commemorate its anniversary, NIDCD will highlight several of these research accomplishments at a symposium planned for the Fall of 2008.

NIDCD Accomplishments. In the past year, NIDCD has supported important activities in the following key areas of communication research:

Genes and Proteins. The NIDCD supports research to investigate the genes and proteins necessary for human communication, including functional genomics (research that delves into the identity, structure, and function of genes) and proteomics (research that explores how proteins interact within cells). Genes influence whether certain proteins are made as well as their structure and function. Mutations in one gene can have a dramatic effect on complex functions such as hearing, balance, smell, taste, voice, speech, and language. For example, NIDCD-supported scientists shed new light on the hearing process by identifying two key proteins that join together at the precise location where energy of sound or head motion is turned into electrical impulses. Understanding how genes and proteins may function differently in individuals with communication disorders is an essential first step in developing personalized and precise molecular diagnoses, pharmacological treatments, and behavioral interventions.

Diagnostics for Treatment and Prevention. There is excellent potential for further development of diagnostics, assistive devices, drugs, and other therapeutic interventions for communication disorders. For example, NIDCD intramural scientists, in collaboration with intramural scientists from the National Cancer Institute, found that individuals with throat cancer who showed a decline in several cancer-related proteins following chemotherapy and radiation treatment were more likely to remain in remission, while those who experienced a large rise over time in those proteins frequently exhibited a return of throat cancer. This finding could help lead to the development of a preemptive blood test that enables doctors to detect the recurrence of throat cancer at an early stage and help to monitor the effectiveness of chemotherapy and radiation treatment in individuals with advanced throat cancer.

NIDCD Plans and Priorities. Intramural Research and Research Management and Support receive modest increases to help offset the cost of pay and other increases. NIDCD will continue to support new investigators and to maintain an adequate number of competing Research Project Grants. Driven by the compelling public health need and scientific opportunity identified in the NIDCD Strategic Plan, NIDCD prioritizes its research investments to identify the most promising scientific opportunities aimed at improving the quality of life for individuals who face the daily challenge of living with a communication disorder, including:

Genes and communication disorders. NIDCD supports research to understand the genetic basis of communication disorders and how these genes are altered in individuals with communication disorders (such as hearing loss, stuttering, speech-sound disorders, autism, and dyslexia). For instance, hereditary or genetic causes account for approximately 50-60 percent of the severe to profound cases of childhood hearing loss1. In FY 2008, NIDCD is the lead NIH institute on a Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) goal to "identify or study additional genes involved in communication disorders in human and animal models by 2011." In fulfilling this goal, NIDCD-supported scientists can capitalize on the knowledge gained from the Human Genome Project to expand and enable research on genes whose mutations may cause communication disorders. The results of these studies will ultimately aid in predicting communication disorders through genetic testing.

Research Core Centers. Sustaining a productive, creative, and innovative pool of qualified scientists and research centers is a key factor for advancing the mission of the NIDCD. Accordingly, NIDCD continues to preserve its focus on training, supporting and encouraging new investigators, and building shared research resources. Starting in January 2008, the NIDCD will accept new applications once a year for its Research Core Center (P30) grant program, a program that had been dormant for two years, with the awarding of only renewal grants. NIDCD is now reopening the program to new applications as a result of research need. The overall goal of a Core Center is to serve as an intellectual hub to provide centralized research resources, promote cooperation between basic and clinical scientists, encourage multidisciplinary collaborations, and facilitate translational research.

Making the Transition to Clinical Research. NIDCD recognizes the importance of promoting translational research to ensure the timely and effective progression from basic research to clinical studies. In 2008 and 2009, NIDCD plans to support several ongoing and new initiatives to encourage research that translates basic findings into clinical tools to benefit people with communication disorders. Because of a critical need for physicians and clinicians to conduct research in the communication sciences, the NIDCD held a workshop and is also supporting several ongoing and new initiatives to facilitate and accelerate entry of physician scientists into research careers.

1 Morton CC and Nance WE. Newborn hearing screening--a silent revolution. N Engl J Med 354: 2151-2164, 2006.

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FY 2009 Justification by Activity Detail

Program Descriptions and Accomplishments

Hearing and Balance Program

Hearing and balance disorders are prevalent, bear substantial costs to society, and cross all ethnic and socioeconomic lines. Approximately 32 million American adults report some degree of hearing loss and almost eight million adults report a chronic problem with balance. To study normal and disordered functions of the auditory and vestibular systems, NIDCD utilizes a wide range of research approaches, such as molecular genetics, the development of assistive and augmentative devices, biomedical imaging, nanotechnology, psychoacoustics, and structural biology.

The NIDCD has fostered the growth of research that will lead to the amelioration or prevention of hearing and balance disorders. For example, tinnitus is a disorder which affects people of all ages and is characterized by loud ringing in the ears. Military personnel that are exposed to loud noises, such as an explosion, may experience hearing loss and/or tinnitus. To help determine the cause and develop treatment for tinnitus, NIDCD issued several announcements to request additional research on this disorder. Also, NIDCD and representatives from the Department of Veterans Affairs and the Department of Defense have been in discussions about their tinnitus research portfolios with the hope of exploring possible research collaborations. In another accomplishment, NIDCD sponsored a short course to help build additional human infrastructure for auditory and vestibular sciences at the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) at Woods Hole, Massachusetts. This course brought together graduate students and faculty to receive training on the biology of the inner ear to increase their knowledge on disorders of hearing and balance.

Budget Policy: The 2009 budget estimate for the Hearing and Balance program is $195.003 million, a decrease of $0.232 million or -0.1 percent from the FY 2008 estimate. In FY 2009, the program will continue emphasizing faculty, postdoctoral and student training on hearing and balance sciences. Capitalizing on the success of the short courses offered at the MBL in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, NIDCD is planning to issue a Funding Opportunity Announcement to support additional educational courses in the auditory and vestibular biological sciences.

PROGRAM PORTRAITS: Hearing Loss in Children

FY 2008 Level: $29.550 million
FY 2009 Level: $29.518 million
Change: -$0.032 million

Each year, approximately two to three out of 1,000 babies born in the United States have a detectable hearing loss, which can affect their speech, language, social, and cognitive development. Universal hearing screening of newborn infants before they are discharged from the hospital has demonstrated great success in identifying moderate to profound degrees of hearing loss in children. However, children with mild and unilateral (one ear) hearing loss are not easily identified. These children score lower on tests of speech, language, school achievement, and behavior than do children without hearing loss.

NIDCD is supporting research on hearing impairment in children and is committed to reducing the possible under-identification and impact of mild and unilateral hearing loss by stimulating research in this area. The NIDCD participated in the National Workshop on Mild and Unilateral Hearing Loss, which was convened by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) program in collaboration with the Marion Downs Hearing Center. The workshop served as a springboard and forum to discuss issues related to the identification, assessment, and intervention appropriate for infants and children with mild and unilateral hearing loss. As a result of the workshop, the NIDCD and CDC developed several grant initiatives on "Research on Mild and/or Unilateral Hearing Loss," which will be directed to foster research to prevent, identify, and treat these children.

In addition, the NIDCD and CDC plan to fund additional grants for "New Technology to Screen for Mild Hearing Loss in Children." These Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) grants are designed to encourage small businesses to develop better screening tools for mild and unilateral hearing loss. These screening tools will help children with lesser degrees of hearing loss receive intervention (such as a hearing aid) as early as possible, which is crucial for language development when used early in a child identified with a hearing loss.

Smell and Taste and Program

The study of the chemical senses of olfaction (smell) and gustation (taste) enhance our understanding of how individuals communicate with their environment. Smell and taste play important roles in preferences and aversions for aromas, specific foods, and flavors. In addition, research on smell and taste will provide knowledge on food preferences which may increase our understanding of obesity and diabetes. The NIDCD supports research to determine the molecular biological studies of smell and taste receptor cells that has provided essential information about the sensitivities of the chemical senses.

NIDCD-supported research on molecular and cellular biology, biophysics, and biochemistry of the olfactory and gustatory systems pave the way for improved diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of chemosensory disorders. Humans can sense five main groups of tastes, which are sweet, bitter, sour, salty, and umami (the taste of monosodium glutamate). Scientists have already identified the cells on the tongue that detect sweet, bitter, and umami. Recently, NIDCD-supported researchers identified the final set of taste cells that is responsible for detecting sour taste. NIDCD continues to capitalize on this finding by publishing an initiative to request research that will study the brain's role in processing taste information and the perception of taste quality.

Budget Policy: The 2009 budget estimate for the Smell and Taste program is $62.104 million, a decrease of $0.074 million or -0.1 percent from the FY 2008 estimate. Disorders in smell and taste may sometimes be a signal to serious health problems, such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, malnutrition, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis. Research is needed to translate the knowledge gained from our understanding of the molecular basis of smell and taste into treatment for individuals with chemosensory disorders. In FY 2009, NIDCD plans to continue supporting an initiative for research on translating basic research into clinical tools for human health. The scope of this Funding Opportunity Announcement includes a range of activities to encourage translation of basic research findings which will impact the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of communication disorders.

Voice, Speech, and Language Program

We depend on our ability to communicate effectively to function in our modern society. Disorders involving voice, speech, or language can have an overwhelming effect on the individual's health and the quality of life. The NIDCD supports research in the communication sciences, including voice, speech, and language, to examine how individuals comprehend and generate speech or language. Because voice, speech, and language disorders affect individuals across the age spectrum and in persons with and without hearing impairment, the NIDCD continues its commitment to determine the nature, causes, treatment, and prevention of communication disorders.

The NIDCD has expanded its research commitment in autism research. Autism affects three crucial areas of language development for verbal and nonverbal communication skills. The NIDCD has been participating in a trans-NIH effort to fund research centers, such as the STAART (Studies to Advance Autism Research and Treatment) and CPEA (Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism) programs. These centers investigate the possible causes of autism, including genetic, immunological, and environmental factors. NIH determined that consolidation of research efforts from the CPEA and STAART programs was needed to maximize coordination and cohesion of NIH-sponsored efforts in autism research. In response, NIDCD is participating in this new trans-NIH effort to support new autism centers and networks called the Autism Centers of Excellence and will co-fund two centers to study genes and other potential factors that may predispose an individual toward autism and to understand how this disorder affects an individual's ability to communicate.

Budget Policy: The 2009 budget estimate for the Voice, Speech, and Language program is $82.192 million, a decrease of $0.101 million or -0.1 percent from the FY 2008 estimate. It is estimated that Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) affects approximately three out of every 1,000 American children ages 3-10 years old. Recently NIDCD and another non-federal organization with interest in ASD research held a workshop to establish criteria for determining acquisition of verbal speech in children with ASD and to develop a set of recommended measures that can be used for evaluating interventions for these children. After the workshop recommendations are published in 2009, NIDCD plans to implement some of these recommendations into Funding Opportunity Announcements to increase research on ASD and communication.

Intramural Research Program

NIDCD's Division of Intramural Research (DIR) conducts basic and clinical research in the areas of human communication with the dominant subject of interest being hearing. Research projects address the genetics of communication disorders in human and mouse models; developmental properties of the inner ear; neuroimaging and computer modeling of brain function; characterization of neurotransmission and signal transduction; and development of vaccines against otitis media. This intense concentration on hearing research and its genetic underpinnings has allowed NIDCD intramural scientists to make significant research progress on this priority for NIDCD.

NIDCD recently recruited a new tenure track investigator who has established a new research program in the functional properties of synapses (the connections between nerve cells). This area of research will study the properties of those connections within pathways of the brain related to hearing. This is a subject area not currently covered within DIR and one that will complement and collaborate with several existing DIR programs. In another area of accomplishment, NIDCD intramural scientists, in collaboration with intramural scientists from the National Cancer Institute, found that throat cancer patients who showed a decline in several cancer-related proteins following chemotherapy and radiation treatment were more likely to remain in remission, while those who experienced a large rise over time in those proteins frequently exhibited a return of throat cancer. These findings could help lead to the development of a blood test that enables doctors to detect the recurrence of throat cancer at an early stage, when there is still time to pursue a second line of treatment, such as surgery or drug therapy.

Budget Policy: The 2009 budget estimate for the Intramural research program is $36.868 million, an increase of $1.037 million or 2.8 percent from the FY 2008 estimate. The NIDCD intramural research program has been a leader in research on hereditary hearing impairment and has identified many genes whose mutation causes hearing loss. In FY 2009, NIDCD intramural scientist will continue their efforts in identifying mutation in genes which impacts hearing. This will contribute to NIDCD's Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) goal on identifying or studying additional genes involved in communication disorders in humans and animal models.

Research Management and Support (RMS) Program

NIDCD RMS activities provide administrative, budgetary, logistical, and scientific support in the review, award, and monitoring of research grants, training awards and research and development contracts. RMS functions also include strategic planning, coordination, and evaluation of the Institute's programs, regulatory compliance, international coordination, and liaison with other Federal agencies, Congress, and the public. The Institute currently oversees over 1,000 research grants, training awards, and R&D contracts.

A unique and notable aspect of NIDCD's RMS is the coordination of trans-NIH administrative activities for the NIH Stem Cell Task Force. The NIDCD Science Policy and Planning Branch manages and coordinates the activities and meetings of these trans-NIH stem cell committees and provides support to the directors of NINDS and NIDCD, who serve as the chair and vice-chair of the NIH Stem Cell Task Force. For example, NIDCD is providing lead support in implementing President Bush's Executive Order on expanding human pluripotent stem cell research that does not involve human embryos. Another area where NIDCD has taken the lead is preventing noise-induced hearing loss in youth. The NIDCD Office of Communications and Public Liaison, together with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), has recently re-focused and expanded the efforts of the successful WISE EARS!® Public information campaign on children of eight to twelve years—the "tweens"—to forge mutually beneficial partnerships between all stakeholders (tweens, parents, health professionals, etc.), and to make use of delivery channels with the highest potential to engage this target audience.

Budget Policy: The 2009 budget estimate for the RMS program is $18.880 million, an increase of $0.279 million or 1.5 percent from the FY 2008 estimate. Consistent with President Bush's Executive Order to expand pluripotent stem cell research that does not involve human embryos, NIDCD will continue to manage activities of the NIH Stem Cell Task Force.

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Budget Authority by Object
Total compensable workyears FY 2008 Enacted FY 2009 Estimate Increase or Decrease
Includes FTEs which are reimbursed from the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research
Full-time employment 134 135 1
Full-time equivalent of overtime and holiday hours 0 0 0
Average ES salary $167,783 $172,816 $5,033
Average GM/GS grade 12.3 12.3 0.0
Average GM/GS salary $96,467 $99,265 $2,798
Average salary, grade established by act of July 1, 1944 (42 U.S.C. 207) $0 $0 $0
Average salary of ungraded positions 128,550 132,278 3,728
Budget Authority by Object
(continued)
OBJECT CLASSES FY 2008 Enacted FY 2009 Estimate Increase or Decrease
Includes FTEs which are reimbursed from the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research
Personnel Compensation:
11.1 Full-time permanent $9,828,000 $10,115,000 $287,000
11.3 Other than full-time permanent 3,694,000 3,875,000 181,000
11.5 Other personnel compensation 420,000 437,000 17,000
11.7 Military personnel 153,000 157,000 4,000
11.8 Special personnel services payments 2,298,000 2,527,000 229,000
Total, Personnel Compensation 16,393,000 17,111,000 718,000
12.0 Personnel benefits 3,805,000 3,969,000 164,000
12.2 Military personnel benefits 46,000 47,000 1,000
13.0 Benefits for former personnel 0 0 0
Subtotal, Pay Costs 20,244,000 21,127,000 883,000
21.0 Travel and transportation of persons 513,000 523,000 10,000
22.0 Transportation of things 62,000 64,000 2,000
23.1 Rental payments to GSA 0 0 0
23.2 Rental payments to others 3,000 3,000 0
23.3 Communications, utilities and miscellaneous charges 248,000 252,000 4,000
24.0 Printing and reproduction 55,000 56,000 1,000
25.1 Consulting services 223,000 227,000 4,000
25.2 Other services 2,267,000 2,308,000 41,000
25.3 Purchase of goods and services from government accounts 36,665,000 36,925,000 260,000
25.4 Operation and maintenance of facilities 150,000 153,000 3,000
25.5 Research and development contracts 9,162,000 9,147,000 (15,000)
25.6 Medical care 141,000 143,000 2,000
25.7 Operation and maintenance of equipment 1,931,000 1,967,000 36,000
25.8 Subsistence and support of persons 0 0 0
25.0 Subtotal, Other Contractual Services 50,539,000 50,870,000 331,000
26.0 Supplies and materials 4,767,000 4,852,000 85,000
31.0 Equipment 0 0 0
32.0 Land and structures 0 0 0
33.0 Investments and loans 0 0 0
41.0 Grants, subsidies and contributions 317,706,000 317,299,000 (407,000)
42.0 Insurance claims and indemnities 0 0 0
43.0 Interest and dividends 1,000 1,000 0
44.0 Refunds 0 0 0
Subtotal, Non-Pay Costs 373,894,000 373,920,000 26,000
Total Budget Authority by Object 394,138,000 395,047,000 909,000

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Salaries and Expenses
OBJECT CLASSES FY 2008 Enacted FY 2009 Estimate Increase or Decrease
Personnel Compensation:
Full-time permanent (11.1) $9,828,000 $10,115,000 $287,000
Other than full-time permanent (11.3) 3,694,000 3,875,000 181,000
Other personnel compensation (11.5) 420,000 437,000 17,000
Military personnel (11.7) 153,000 157,000 4,000
Special personnel services payments (11.8) 2,298,000 2,527,000 229,000
Total Personnel Compensation (11.9) 16,393,000 17,111,000 718,000
Civilian personnel benefits (12.1) 3,805,000 3,969,000 164,000
Military personnel benefits (12.2) 46,000 47,000 1,000
Benefits to former personnel (13.0) 0 0 0
Subtotal, Pay Costs 20,244,000 21,127,000 883,000
Travel (21.0) 513,000 523,000 10,000
Transportation of things (22.0) 62,000 64,000 2,000
Rental payments to others (23.2) 3,000 3,000 0
Communications, utilities and miscellaneous charges (23.3) 248,000 252,000 4,000
Printing and reproduction (24.0) 55,000 56,000 1,000
Other Contractual Services:
Advisory and assistance services (25.1) 223,000 227,000 4,000
Other services (25.2) 2,267,000 2,308,000 41,000
Purchases from government accounts (25.3) 18,605,000 18,700,000 95,000
Operation and maintenance of facilities (25.4) 150,000 153,000 3,000
Operation and maintenance of equipment (25.7) 1,931,000 1,967,000 36,000
Subsistence and support of persons (25.8) 0 0 0
Subtotal Other Contractual Services 23,176,000 23,355,000 179,000
Supplies and materials (26.0) 2,239,000 2,279,000 40,000
Subtotal, Non-Pay Costs 26,296,000 26,532,000 236,000
Total, Administrative Costs 46,540,000 47,659,000 1,119,000

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Authorizing Legislation
PHS Act/Other Citation U.S. Code Citation 2007 Amount Authorized FY 2008 Enacted 2008 Amount Authorized FY 2009 Budget Estimate
Research and Investigation Section 301 42§241 Indefinite Combined $394,138,000 Indefinite Combined $395,047,000
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Section 402(a) 42§281 Indefinite Indefinite
Total, Budget Authority 394,138,000 395,047,000

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Appropriations History
Fiscal Year Budget Estimate to Congress House Allowance Senate Allowance Appropriation
1/ Reflects enacted supplementals, rescissions, and reappropriations.
2/ Excludes funds for HIV/AIDS research activities consolidated in the NIH Office of AIDS Research.
2000 235,297,000 251,218,000 261,962,000 265,185,000
Rescission 0 0 0 (1,414,000)
2001 276,418,000 301,787,000 303,541,000 300,581,000
Rescission (100,000)
2002 336,757,000 334,161,000 349,983,000 342,072,000
Rescission (397,000)
2003 365,929,000 351,376,000 372,805,000 372,805,000
Rescission (2,423,000)
2004 380,377,000 380,377,000 384,577,000 384,477,000
Rescission (2,424,000)
2005 393,507,000 393,507,000 399,000,000 397,507,000
Rescission (3,247,000)
2006 397,432,000 397,432,000 418,357,000 397,432,000
Rescission (3,974,320)
2007 391,556,000 391,556,000 395,188,000 393,458,000
2008 393,682,000 400,305,000 402,680,000 394,138,000
Rescission (7,008,000)
2009 395,047,000

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Details of Full-Time Equivalent Employment (FTEs)
OFFICE/DIVISION FY 2007 Actual FY 2008 Enacted FY 2009 Estimate
Includes FTEs that are reimbursed from the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research
Office of the Director 3 3 3
Office of Administration 38 38 38
Division of Extramural Activities 14 14 14
Division of Scientific Programs 13 13 13
Division of Intramural Research 66 66 67
Total 134 134 135
FTEs supported by funds from Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (0) (0) (0)
Details of Full-Time Equivalent Employment (FTEs)
(continued)
FISCAL YEAR Average GM/GS Grade
2005 12.4
2006 12.2
2007 12.3
2008 12.3
2009 12.3

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NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
Details of Positions
GRADE FY 2007 Actual FY 2008 Enacted FY 2009 Estimate
Includes FTEs which are reimbursed from the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research.
Total, ES Positions 1 1 1
Total, ES Salary $159,793 $167,783 $172,816
GM/GS-15 23 23 23
GM/GS-14 14 14 14
GM/GS-13 17 17 17
GS-12 16 16 16
GS-11 8 8 8
GS-10 0 0 0
GS-9 13 13 13
GS-8 3 3 3
GS-7 2 2 2
GS-6 1 1 1
GS-5 0 0 0
GS-4 1 1 1
GS-3 0 0 0
GS-2 0 0 0
GS-1 0 0 0
Subtotal 98 98 98
Grades established by Act of July 1, 1944 (42 U.S.C. 207):
Assistant Surgeon General 1 0 0
Director Grade 0 0 0
Senior Grade 0 0 0
Full Grade 0 0 0
Senior Assistant Grade 0 0 0
Assistant Grade 0 0 0
Subtotal 1 0 0
Ungraded 52 53 53
Total permanent positions 108 108 108
Total positions, end of year 152 152 152
Total full-time equivalent (FTE) employment, end of year 134 134 135
Average ES salary 159,793 167,783 172,816
Average GM/GS grade 12 12 12
Average GM/GS salary 92,322 96,467 99,265

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